Enzalutamide and Metformin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02339168
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : January 15, 2015
Last Update Posted : January 4, 2019
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Medivation, Inc.
Astellas Pharma Inc
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of California, Davis

Brief Summary:
This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of metformin hydrochloride when given together with enzalutamide in treating patients with prostate cancer that has not responded to previous treatment with hormones. Hormone therapy using enzalutamide may fight prostate cancer by lowering the amount of androgens the body makes and blocking the use of androgens by the tumor cells. Metformin hydrochloride, used for diabetes, may also help kill tumor cells. Giving enzalutamide together with metformin hydrochloride may kill more tumor cells.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Prostate Cancer Drug: Enzalutamide Drug: Metformin Hydrochloride Phase 1

Detailed Description:


I. To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of enzalutamide when given in combination with metformin (metformin hydrochloride) to patients with castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), where fewer than 33% of patients experienced dose limiting toxicity (DLT) attributable to the study regimen and to recommend a phase II dose for the combination.


I. To determine prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response in patients with CRPC with given enzalutamide in combination with metformin.

II. To determine PSA progression in patients with CRPC with given enzalutamide in combination with metformin.

III. To investigate the feasibility and safety of enzalutamide when given in combination with metformin hydrochloride to patients with CRPC.

IV. To obtain preliminary evidence of efficacy for this combination.


I. To collect computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsies of metastatic soft tissue or bone tumor tissue for analysis of androgen receptor (AR) gene signature as an integrated biomarker (University of California San Francisco [UCSF] to conduct analysis).

II. To collect serum samples for the measurement of PSA levels and bone re-absorption markers.

OUTLINE: This is a dose-escalation study of metformin hydrochloride.

Patients receive enzalutamide orally (PO) once daily (QD) and metformin hydrochloride PO twice daily (BID). Courses repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up at 4, 8, and 12 weeks.

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 24 participants
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Enzalutamide and Metformin Combination Therapy to Overcome Autophagy Resistance in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer
Study Start Date : June 2016
Estimated Primary Completion Date : June 2019
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2019

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Prostate Cancer

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: enzalutamide and metformin hydrochloride
Patients receive enzalutamide PO QD and metformin hydrochloride PO BID. Courses repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
Drug: Enzalutamide
Given PO
Other Names:
  • MDV3100
  • Xtandi

Drug: Metformin Hydrochloride
Given PO
Other Names:
  • Glucophage
  • Metformin HCl

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. DLT graded accorded to the National Cancer institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0 [ Time Frame: 28 days ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Incidence of adverse events graded according to NCI CTCAE version 4.0 [ Time Frame: Up to 12 weeks after last dose of study treatment ]
    The safety analysis population will consist of patients who received any amount of study drug. Clinical and laboratory adverse events will be summarized by coded term and severity. Laboratory values will be plotted over time.

  2. PSA response rate as determined by percent of patients achieving >= 50% PSA decline following initiation of treatment [ Time Frame: Up to 12 weeks after last dose of study treatment ]
    Confidence intervals for the PSA response rate will be calculated using the Clopper-Pearson method, and the PSA response rate will be tested against a null response rate of 50% using an exact binomial test.

  3. PSA progression by Prostate Cancer Working Group (PCWG) 2, defined as the date that a 25% or greater increase and an absolute increase of 2 ng/mL or more from the nadir is documented, which is confirmed by a second value obtained 3 or more weeks later [ Time Frame: Up to 12 weeks after last dose of study treatment ]
    PSA progression by PCWG2 will be assessed and described.

  4. Radiographic disease progression, determined by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 [ Time Frame: Up to 12 weeks after last dose of study treatment ]
  5. Progression-free survival [ Time Frame: Time from study entry to disease progression in PSA, bone or soft-tissue, symptoms, or death, assessed up to 12 weeks after last dose of study treatment ]
  6. Time to treatment failure which includes discontinuing therapy because of disease progression, toxicity, or patient withdrawal [ Time Frame: Up to 12 weeks after last dose of study treatment ]

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Patients must have histologically or cytologically confirmed prostate cancer with a Gleason score available or interpretable; patients must have prostate cancer deemed to be castration-resistant by one or more of the following criteria (despite androgen deprivation and anti-androgen withdrawal when applicable):

    • Progression of unidimensionally measurable disease assessed within 28 days prior to initial administration of drug
    • Progression of evaluable but not measurable disease assessed within 28 days prior to initial administration of drug for PSA evaluation and within 42 days for imaging studies (e.g, bone scans)
    • NOTE: rising PSA, defined as at least two consecutive rises in PSA to be documented over a reference value (measure 1); the first rising PSA (measure 2) should be taken at least 7 days after the reference value; a third confirmatory PSA measure (2nd beyond the reference level) should be greater than the second measure, and it must be obtained at least 7 days after the 2nd measure; if this is not the case, a fourth PSA is required to be taken and be greater than the second measure; measurable disease is not required
  • Patients who have measurable disease must have had X-rays, scans or physical examinations used for tumor measurement completed within 28 days prior to initial administration of drug
  • Patients must have non-measurable disease (such as nuclear medicine bone scans) and non-target lesions (such as PSA level) assessed within 28 days prior to initial administration of drug
  • Soft tissue disease that has been radiated within the two months prior to registration is not assessable as measurable disease; soft tissue disease that has been radiated two or more months prior to registration is assessable as measurable disease provided that the lesion has progressed following radiation; patients must have at least one measurable lesion outside the previously irradiated region in order to be considered to have measurable disease
  • Patients must have been surgically or medically castrated; if the method of castration was luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists (leuprolide or goserelin), then the patient must be willing to continue the use of LHRH agonists; serum testosterone must be at castrate levels (< 50 ng/dL) at least 14 days prior to registration
  • If the patient has been treated with non-steroidal anti-androgens (flutamide, bicalutamide or nilutamide) or other hormonal treatment (such as ketoconazole), these agents must have been stopped at least 28 days prior to enrollment for flutamide or ketoconazole, and at least 42 days prior to enrollment for bicalutamide or nilutamide; and the patients must have demonstrated progression of disease since the agents were suspended
  • Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-2
  • Absolute neutrophil count >= 1,500/mcL
  • Platelets >= 100,000/mcL
  • Total bilirubin within normal institutional limits
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT])/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase [SGPT]) =< 2.5 x institutional upper limit of normal
  • Creatinine within normal institutional limits OR creatinine clearance >= 60 mL/min/1.73 m^2 for patients with creatinine levels above institutional normal
  • Concurrent bisphosphonate or receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)-ligand directed therapy for prevention of skeletal related events or treatment of osteoporosis is allowed
  • Male patient and his female partner who is of childbearing potential must use 2 acceptable methods of birth control (one of which must include a condom as a barrier method of contraception) starting at screening and continuing throughout the study period and for 3 months after final study drug administration; two acceptable methods of birth control thus include the following: condom (barrier method of contraception) AND one of the following is required:

    • Established use of oral, or injected or implanted hormonal method of contraception by the female partner
    • Placement of an intrauterine device (IUD) or intrauterine system (IUS) by the female partner
    • Additional barrier method: occlusive cap (diaphragm or cervical/vault caps) with spermicidal foam/gel film/cream/suppository by the female partner
    • Tubal ligation in the female partner
    • Vasectomy or other procedure resulting in infertility (e.g., bilateral orchiectomy), for more than 6 months
  • Able to swallow the study drug and comply with study requirements
  • Estimated life expectancy >= 6 months
  • Ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Patients who have had radiotherapy within 2 weeks prior to entering the study or those who have not recovered from adverse events due to agents administered more than 4 weeks earlier
  • Patients with prior history of seizure, underlying brain injury with loss of consciousness, transient ischemic attack within the past 12 months, cerebral vascular accident, brain arteriovenous malformation or the use of concomitant medications that may lower the seizure threshold or other conditions predisposing to seizure
  • Patients who are receiving any other investigational agents
  • Patients who are currently taking metformin; prior metformin use is allowed if last dose was 3 months previous to this trial
  • Patients with diabetes on a different agent or patients with rheumatoid arthritis taking hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil)
  • Greater than 2 prior therapies in metastatic CRPC (including single-agent docetaxel, abiraterone); abiraterone can only be taken pre-chemotherapy
  • Prior cabazitaxel or radium 233 for prostate cancer
  • Patients with known brain metastases should be excluded from this clinical trial
  • History of allergic reactions attributed to compounds of similar chemical or biologic composition to enzalutamide or metformin
  • Participation in a previous clinical trial of enzalutamide or an investigational agent that inhibits the androgen receptor (ARN-509) or androgen synthesis
  • Uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or active infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements
  • Patients on antipsychotic medication
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients on combination antiretroviral therapy are ineligible

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02339168

United States, California
University of California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center
Sacramento, California, United States, 95817
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of California, Davis
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Medivation, Inc.
Astellas Pharma Inc
Principal Investigator: Christopher Evans University of California, Davis

Responsible Party: University of California, Davis Identifier: NCT02339168     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 680462
UCDCC#243 ( Other Identifier: UC Davis UCDCC#243 )
UCDCC#243 ( Other Identifier: University of California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center )
P30CA093373 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
NCI-2014-02668 ( Registry Identifier: CTRP (Clinical Trial Reporting Program) )
First Posted: January 15, 2015    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: January 4, 2019
Last Verified: January 2019

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Prostatic Neoplasms
Genital Neoplasms, Male
Urogenital Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Genital Diseases, Male
Prostatic Diseases
Hypoglycemic Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs