Integrative Group-based Cognitive Rehabilitation Efficacy in Multiple Sclerosis
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02287454|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 10, 2014
Last Update Posted : November 13, 2017
The study design was a parallel-group randomized trial with equal randomization. Recruitment and enrollment were conducted between January 2013 and March 2013. At base-line, cognitive data was collected. Afterwards, the participants were randomly allocated to either the REHACOP group or the Control group. During 3 months the intervention with REHACOP program took place and at follow-up patients were again re-evaluated to evaluate the change in cognitive measure. Post-treatment assessment (finished by July 2013) was performed within the first week after completing the intervention. Optional enrollment in pre-post neuroimaging will also allow us to look at changes in the brain.
Objective: To examine the efficacy of an integrative cognitive training program (REHACOP) to improve cognition of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS).
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Multiple Sclerosis||Other: cognitive remediation program: REHACOP||Not Applicable|
Patients underwent an extensive neuropsychological battery including test of attention, working memory, processing speed, verbal memory (learning and recall), verbal fluency and executive functioning. Sustained attention was measured using the Brief Test of Attention. For working memory, the Backward Digits subtest of the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale III was used. Processing speed was assessed through the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the three and six letter version of the Salthouse Perceptual Comparison Test and the Trail Making Test A. Verbal memory was determined based on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test , learning and long-term recall performance. For verbal fluency, the Category (animals and supermarket) and Letter (P) Word Fluency Test from the Calibrated Ideational Fluency Assessment were utilized . Executive functioning was calculated by the word-color and interference scores of the Stroop Word-Color Test.
Additionally, several test and scales were administered. The Expanded Disability Status Scale was used for rating the degree of neurologic impairment. Premorbid IQ was tested by The Accentuation Reading Test. Cognitive reserve was estimated with the Cognitive Reserve Questionnaire. The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale was included to assess patients´ depressive symptoms. The Fatigue Severity Scale and the mental fatigue Visual Analogue Scale were included to evaluate physical and mental fatigue, respectively.
Description of the intervention:
REHACOP is a structured program using paper-pencil tasks and it is based on the principles of restoration, compensation and optimization with a gradually increasing level of cognitive effort and demand. REHACOP trains different cognitive domains, such as attention, memory, processing speed, language, executive functioning and social cognition. Additionally, the program includes one unit related to functional outcome: activities of daily living. REHACOP includes up to 300 different tasks hierarchically organized into at least three levels of difficulty and subtypes of abilities. Several tasks are timed, so processing speed is trained throughout various modules. Once a basic cognitive strategy has been trained and well acquired, the therapist transitions the program to the next level. The program format allows for either individual or group sessions (between 5 and 8 patients per group), although for the purpose of this study, group sessions were chosen. In this study, two psychologists conducted the REHACOP group attending 60-minute-long sessions 3 days per week at Multiple Sclerosis Association of Biscay (ADEMBI) (four groups). Specifically, REHACOP group remediation with MS patients consisted of: Attention unit (4 weeks) training sustained, selective, alternant and divided attention; Memory unit (3 weeks) focusing on visual and verbal learning, recall and recognizing memory, as well as in working memory; Language unit (3 weeks) including verbal fluency, grammar, syntax, vocabulary, verbal comprehension, abstract language; Executive functions unit (2 weeks) training development, planning and attainment of objectives; and Social cognition unit (1 week) exercising theory of mind, social reasoning and moral dilemmas.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||32 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||Integrative Group-based Cognitive Rehabilitation Efficacy in Multiple Sclerosis: a Randomized Clinical Trial|
|Study Start Date :||January 2013|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||July 2013|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||July 2013|
Experimental: Cognitive remediation program: REHACOP
Cognitive rehabilitation program (REHACOP) including intervention in: attention, memory, processing speed, language, executive functioning and social cognition during 3 months, 3 times per week
Other: cognitive remediation program: REHACOP
Specifically, REHACOP group remediation with MS patients consisted of: four weeks training attention (sustained, selective, alternating and divided attention); three weeks focused on learning and memory (the stimulation of verbal and visual memory was combined with learning and compensatory strategies, working memory was also trained); three weeks exercising executive functioning (development, planning and attainment of objectives); three weeks focused on language (verbal fluency, syntax, grammar, vocabulary and comprehension); and one week training social cognition (social reasoning, theory of mind and moral dilemmas).
No Intervention: Control group
No intervention was administered.
- Change in attention after receiving cognitive rehabilitation treatment [ Time Frame: 3 months ]Attention was measured using the Brief Test of Attention (BTA).
- Change in working memory after receiving cognitive remediation treatment [ Time Frame: 3 months ]Working memory was measured using the Backward Digits (BD) subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III.
- Change in processing speed after receiving cognitive remediation treatment [ Time Frame: 3 months ]Processing speed was measured using a composite score which included the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), the three and six letter version of the Salthouse Perceptual Comparison Test (PCT) and the Trail Making Test A (TMTA).
- Change in verbal memory after receiving cognitive remediation treatment [ Time Frame: 3 months ]Verbal memory was measured using The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R).
- Change in verbal fluency after receiving cognitive remediation treatment [ Time Frame: 3 months ]Verbal fluency was measured using the Calibrated Ideational Fluency Assessment (CIFA).
- Change in executive functioning after receiving cognitive remediation treatment. [ Time Frame: 3 months ]Executive functioning was measured with the Stroop Color-Word Test.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02287454
|University of Deusto|
|Bilbao, Biskai, Spain, 48007|
|Principal Investigator:||Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao, Doctor||University of Deusto|