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Testosterone Revival Abolishes Negative Symptoms, Fosters Objective Response and Modulates Enzalutamide Resistance (Transformer)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02286921
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : November 10, 2014
Results First Posted : May 1, 2019
Last Update Posted : October 8, 2019
United States Department of Defense
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins

Brief Summary:
Asymptomatic men with progressive metastatic Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) post- treatment with abiraterone acetate (pre-chemotherapy for metastatic disease) will be treated on a randomized, multi-Institutional open label study to determine if treatment with intramuscular T given on a dose/schedule designed to result in rapid cycling from the polar extremes of supraphysiologic to near castrate levels [i.e. Bipolar Androgen Therapy (BAT)] will improve primary and secondary objectives vs. enzalutamide as standard therapy.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Castration Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer Drug: Testosterone cypionate Drug: Enzalutamide Drug: Testosterone Enanthate Phase 2

Detailed Description:

Eligible patients will have metastatic CRPC with no disease related symptoms and progression on Androgen deprivation therapy and will have progressed post-treatment with abiraterone. Patients will continue on Androgen deprivation therapy with Luteinising Hormone Releasing Hormone agonist (i.e. Zoladex, Trelstar, Eligard or Lupron) or Luteinising Hormone Releasing Hormone antagonist (Degarelix) if not surgically castrated throughout the duration of the study to inhibit endogenous testosterone production. Patients will be randomized 1:1 and stratified based on duration of prior abiraterone acetate therapy (6 months or less or greater than 6 months). Patients randomized to BAT (Arm A) will receive intramuscular injections with either testosterone cypionate or testosterone enanthate at a dose of 400 mg every 28 days. This dose was selected based on data demonstrating that it produces an initial supraphysiologic serum level of T (i.e. > 1500 ng/dL or 3-10 times normal level) with eugonadal levels achieved at the end of two weeks and near castrate levels after 28 days. Patients randomized to enzalutamide (Arm B) will receive daily oral dose of 160 mg. Each cycle is defined as 28 days.

Patients will have Prostate-specific antigen level and symptoms assessment checked every cycle. Every 3 cycles patients will have repeat bone/CT scans to evaluate treatment response status. On CT scan, radiographic progression will be defined by RECIST criteria (i.e. >20% increase in the sum of target lesions). On bone scan, radiographic progression will be defined by PCWG2 criteria as ≥ 2 new bone lesions. However, for the first reassessment scan only, patients should remain on study and have a confirmatory scan performed 12 weeks (3 cycles) later. If this confirmatory scan shows 2 or more additional new lesions, this defines progression. The date of progression is the date of the first reassessment bone scan. If the confirmatory scan does not show any additional new lesions, patient remains on study. If progression is observed on subsequent bone scans, a confirmatory scan is not required; the date of this bone scan is the date of progression.

Patients with Prostate-specific antigen progression but with disease response or stable disease on imaging studies will remain on study until radiographic or other clinical progression criteria are met. Patients with radiographic disease progression will not receive continued BAT (arm A) or enzalutamide (arm B) and will be eligible for crossover to the opposite therapy. Patients on the BAT arm A can cross over to receive enzalutamide at time of progression or can choose to go off study and be treated with other standard of care treatments. Patients on the enzalutamide arm B will be allowed to cross-over to receive BAT or can choose to go off study and be treated with other standard of care treatments.

Patients with clinical progression due to prostate cancer must meet study exclusion criteria to be permitted to cross-over to the opposite treatment. Patients with clinical progression due to pain from prostate cancer are not permitted to cross-over.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 222 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Randomized Phase II Study Comparing Bipolar Androgen Therapy vs. Enzalutamide in Asymptomatic Men With Castration Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer
Study Start Date : January 2015
Actual Primary Completion Date : October 26, 2018
Estimated Study Completion Date : November 22, 2019

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Arm A: Testosterone cypionate or testosterone enanthate
Patients on BAT will receive testosterone cypionate or testosterone enanthate administered as an intramuscular injection. A dose of 400 mg of either agent will be injected intramuscularly (IM) every 28 days.
Drug: Testosterone cypionate
Depo-Testosterone Injection, for intramuscular injection, contains testosterone cypionate which is the oil-soluble of the androgenic hormone testosterone. Testosterone cypionate is a white or creamy white crystalline powder, odorless or nearly so and stable in air. Depo-Testosterone Injection is available in two strengths, 100 mg/mL and 200 mg/mL testosterone cypionate.
Other Name: Depo-Testosterone Injection

Drug: Testosterone Enanthate
Testosterone Enanthate Injection, for intramuscular injection, contains testosterone enanthate which is the oil-soluble ester of the androgenic hormone testosterone. Enanthate Injection is available as a colorless to pale yellow solution. Each mL contains 200 mg testosterone enanthate in sesame oil with 5 mg chlorobutanol as a preservative.
Other Name: Delatestryl

Experimental: Arm B: Enzalutamide
Patients randomized to enzalutamide will be prescribed enzalutamide 40 mg tablets and instructed to take 4 tablets per day orally for 28 days/cycle.
Drug: Enzalutamide
Enzalutamide is a white crystalline non-hygroscopic solid. It is practically insoluble in water. Enzalutamide is provided as liquid-filled soft gelatin capsules for oral administration. Each capsule contains 40 mg of enzalutamide as a solution in caprylocaproyl polyoxylglycerides. The inactive ingredients are caprylocaproyl polyoxylglycerides, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, gelatin, sorbitol sorbitan solution, glycerin, purified water, titanium dioxide, and black iron oxide.
Other Name: Xtandi

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Progression Free Survival as Measured by Number of Months Until Clinical or Radiographic Progression [ Time Frame: up to 2 years ]

    Time to clinical progression will be defined as months from randomization to any of the following (whichever occurs earlier):

    • Cancer pain requiring initiation of chronic administration of opiate analgesia (oral opiate use for ≥3 weeks; parenteral opiate use for ≥7 days. Patients with cancer pain requiring opiate analgesia for relief should also be assessed by the investigator for the need for initiating systemic chemotherapy or palliative radiation.
    • Development of a skeletal-related event (SRE): pathologic fracture, spinal cord compression, or need for surgical intervention or radiation therapy to the bone.
    • Development of clinically significant symptoms due to loco-regional tumor progression (e.g. urinary obstruction) requiring surgical intervention or radiation therapy.

  2. Radiographic Progression [ Time Frame: up to 2 years ]
    Number of months until 20% increase in the sum of target lesions on CT scans.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Prostate-Specific Antigen Response Rate [ Time Frame: Up to 2 years ]
    Number of participants achieving a Prostate-Specific Antigen decline ≥ 50% according to Prostate Cancer Working Group (PCWG2) criteria.

  2. Objective Response Rate as Determined by RECIST [ Time Frame: Up to 2 years ]
    Number of participants with partial (PR) or complete response (CR) as defined by response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST), where CR is a disappearance of all target lesions and PR is ≥30% reduction in the sum of the longest diameter of target lesions.

  3. Time to Prostate-Specific Antigen Progression [ Time Frame: Up to 2 years ]
    Reported as number of months till Prostate-Specific Antigen increase of greater or equal to 50% according to Prostate Cancer Working Group (PCWG2) criteria.

  4. Quality of Life as Assessed by the Positive Affect Score of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) [ Time Frame: up to 1 year ]
    The Positive Affect Score is calculated by adding the scores on items 1, 3, 5, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 17, and 19. Scores can range from 10 - 50, with higher scores representing higher levels of positive affect.

  5. Quality of Life as Assessed by the Negative Affect Score of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) [ Time Frame: up to 1 year ]
    The Negative Affect Score is calculated by adding the scores on items 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 13, 15, 18, and 20. Scores can range from 10 - 50, with lower scores representing lower levels of negative affect.

  6. Change in Quality of Life as Assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) Questionnaire [ Time Frame: up to 1 year ]
    The IIEF assesses erectile function (EF), orgasmic function (OF), sexual desire (SD), intercourse satisfaction (IS), orgasmic satisfaction (OS). Each of domains are scored on a scale of 0 to 5 with a lower score indicating a bad quality sex life. The IIEF questionnaire has a total score that ranges from 5 to 25 with lower score indicating less erectile dysfunction. A positive change in the score reflects better outcome.

  7. Quality of Life as Assessed by Short Form 36 [ Time Frame: up to 1 year ]
    All questions are scored on a scale from 0 to 100. The total score from all of the questions answered is divided by the total number of the questions answered yielding a global score from 0-100 with 100 representing the highest level of functioning possible.

  8. Quality of Life as Assessed by FACIT Fatigue Scale [ Time Frame: up to 1 year ]
    The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Fatigue has a score range of 0-52 with higher scores indicating better quality of life.

  9. Pain Severity as Assessed by the Brief Pain Inventory [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Severity is calculated by adding the scores for questions 2, 3, 4 and 5 and then dividing by 4. This gives a severity score out of 10, high score indicates more severe pain.

  10. Pain Interference as Assessed by the Brief Pain Inventory [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Interference is calculated by adding the scores for questions 8a, b, c, d, e, f and g and then dividing by 7. This gives an interference score out of 10, higher score indicates more pain interference.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 80 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance status ≤2
  • Age ≥18 years
  • Histologically-confirmed adenocarcinoma of the prostate
  • Treated with continuous androgen ablative therapy (either surgical castration or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist/antagonist)
  • Documented castrate level of serum testosterone (<50 ng/dl)
  • Metastatic disease radiographically documented by CT/MRI or bone scan.
  • Must have had disease progression while on abiraterone acetate alone or abiraterone acetate in combination with other investigational agents based on:

    • Prostate-specific antigen progression defined as an increase in Prostate-specific antigen, as determined by 2 separate measurements taken at least 1 week apart


  • Radiographic disease progression, based on RECIST 1.1 in patients with measurable soft tissue lesions, or PCWG2 for patients with bone disease

    • Screening Prostate-specific antigen must be ≥ 1.0 ng/mL.
    • Prior treatment with additional second line hormone therapies is allowed.
    • No prior treatment with enzalutamide, Apalutamide (ARN-509), Darolutamide (ODM-201), galeterone or other investigational androgen receptor targeted treatment is allowed.
    • Prior docetaxel for hormone-sensitive prostate cancer is permitted if ≤ 6 doses were given in conjunction with first-line androgen deprivation therapy and >12 months since last dose of docetaxel.
    • Prior treatment with Provenge vaccine and 223Radium (Xofigo) is allowed if >4 weeks from last dose.
    • Patients must be withdrawn from abiraterone for ≥ 2 weeks.
    • Patients must be weaned off prednisone and be off therapy for ≥ 1 week prior to starting therapy.
    • Acceptable liver function:
  • Bilirubin < 2.5 times institutional upper limit of normal (ULN)
  • aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (SGPT) < 2.5 times ULN

    - Acceptable renal function:

  • Serum creatinine < 2.5 times ULN

    - Acceptable hematologic status:

  • Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥ 1500 cells/mm3 (1.5 ×109/L)
  • Platelet count ≥ 100,000 platelet/mm3 (100 ×109/L)
  • Hemoglobin ≥ 9 g/dL.

    • At least 4 wks since prior radiation.
    • Ability to understand and willingness to sign a written informed consent document.
    • Patients on either treatment arm will be considered for crossover if they demonstrate evidence of radiographic disease progression.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Pain due to metastatic prostate cancer requiring treatment intervention.
  • Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance status ≥3
  • Prior treatment with enzalutamide is prohibited
  • Prior treatment with docetaxel or cabazitaxel for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer is prohibited.
  • Requires urinary catheterization for voiding due to obstruction secondary to prostatic enlargement well documented to be due to prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
  • Evidence of disease in sites or extent that, in the opinion of the investigator, would put the patient at risk from therapy with testosterone (e.g. femoral metastases with concern over fracture risk, severe and extensive spinal metastases with concern over spinal cord compression, extensive liver metastases)
  • Evidence of serious and/or unstable pre-existing medical, psychiatric or other condition (including laboratory abnormalities) that could interfere with patient safety or provision of informed consent to participate in this study
  • Active uncontrolled infection, including known history of HIV/AIDS or hepatitis B or C.
  • Any psychological, familial, sociological, or geographical condition that could potentially interfere with compliance with the study protocol and follow-up schedule.
  • Patients receiving anticoagulation therapy with Coumadin are not eligible for study. [Patients on non-coumadin anticoagulants (Lovenox, Xarelto, etc.) are eligible for study. Patients on Coumadin who can be transitioned to lovenox prior to starting study treatments will be eligible].
  • Patients with prior history of a thromboembolic event within the last 12 months that is not being treated with systemic anticoagulation are excluded.
  • Patients allergic to sesame seed oil or cottonseed oil are excluded.
  • Major surgery (eg, requiring general anesthesia) within 3 weeks before screening, or has not fully recovered from prior surgery (ie, unhealed wound). Note: subjects with planned surgical procedures to be conducted under local anesthesia may participate.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02286921

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United States, Alabama
Unversity of Alabama
Birmingham, Alabama, United States, 35294
United States, California
City of Hope
Duarte, California, United States, 91010
United States, Colorado
University of Colorado Cancer Center
Aurora, Colorado, United States, 80045
United States, District of Columbia
Sibley Memorial Hospital
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, 20016
United States, Georgia
Piedmont Cancer Institute
Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 30318
United States, Illinois
University of Chicago
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60637
United States, Kansas
University of Kansas Cancer Center
Kansas City, Kansas, United States, 66160
United States, Louisiana
Tulane University Medical Center
New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, 70112
United States, Maryland
University of Maryland
Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21201
SKCCC at Johns Hopkins
Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21205
United States, Michigan
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States, 48109
United States, Nebraska
Neraska Cancer Specialists
Omaha, Nebraska, United States, 68130
United States, New Jersey
Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey
New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States, 08901
United States, Ohio
Cleveland Clinic
Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 44195
United States, Pennsylvania
Allegheny Health Network
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 15212
United States, Utah
Huntsman Cancer Institute
Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 84112
United States, Washington
University of Washing
Seattle, Washington, United States, 98109
Sponsors and Collaborators
Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins
United States Department of Defense
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Principal Investigator: Samuel Denmeade, MD Johns Hopkins School of Medicine - Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins:
Study Protocol  [PDF] February 27, 2017
Statistical Analysis Plan  [PDF] March 27, 2017

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Responsible Party: Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins Identifier: NCT02286921     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: J14146
IRB00046414 ( Other Identifier: JHU IRB )
W81XWH-14-2-0189 ( Other Grant/Funding Number: Department of Defense )
First Posted: November 10, 2014    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: May 1, 2019
Last Update Posted: October 8, 2019
Last Verified: September 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Keywords provided by Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins:
Androgen Ablative Therapies
Bipolar Androgen Therapy
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Prostatic Neoplasms
Genital Neoplasms, Male
Urogenital Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Genital Diseases, Male
Prostatic Diseases
Testosterone undecanoate
Testosterone enanthate
Testosterone 17 beta-cypionate
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
Antineoplastic Agents
Anabolic Agents