B Cell Induction in Pediatric Lung Transplantation
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02266888|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : October 17, 2014
Results First Posted : July 16, 2020
Last Update Posted : August 4, 2020
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Lung Transplant||Biological: Rituximab (Rituxan®) Biological: Placebo||Phase 2|
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||45 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator)|
|Official Title:||B Cell Targeted Induction to Improve Outcomes in Pediatric Lung Transplantation (CTOTC-08)|
|Actual Study Start Date :||January 22, 2015|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||June 30, 2019|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||June 30, 2019|
Experimental: Rituximab Induction
Rituximab (Rituxan®) Induction Therapy Plus Standard of Care Immunosuppression (thymoglobulin induction, tacrolimus or equivalent, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or equivalent, and steroids)
Biological: Rituximab (Rituxan®)
2 Doses: 375 mg/m^2 on Day 0 (within 12 hours of return to ICU following transplant) and Day 12 (+/-2 days).
Other Name: Rituxan®
Placebo Comparator: Placebo Induction
Placebo Induction Therapy Plus Standard of Care Immunosuppression (Thymoglobulin® induction, tacrolimus or equivalent, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or equivalent, and steroids)
Placebo for Rituximab (Rituxan®). 2 Doses: 375 mg/m^2 on Day 0 (within 12 hours of return to ICU following transplant) and Day 12 (+/-2 days).
- Earliest Time to Any of the Following Events: Chronic Allograft Dysfunction, Listed for Retransplant or Death [ Time Frame: Up to 35 months post-transplant ]
This composite outcome measures is defined as the earliest time post-transplant to any of the following events during the follow-up period:
- Chronic Allograft Dysfunction (defined as the occurrence of confirmed Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS) grade 0-p or higher or a diagnosis of Obliterative Bronchiolitis (OB)),
- Listed for re-transplant (e.g., second lung transplant), or
- Percent of Participants Diagnosed With Chronic Allograft Dysfunction [ Time Frame: Up to 35 months post-transplant ]
Chronic allograft dysfunction is defined as Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS) ≥Grade 0p according to the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) criteria, or biopsy proven histologic evidence of obliterans bronchiolitis.
BOS is an indicator of post-transplant loss of lung function, a sign of allograft dysfunction that presents as a persistent decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) or forced expiratory flow (FEF) 25-75% (often accompanied by evidence of airway obstruction) that is not the result of other causes such as acute rejection, acute infection, and/or airway stenosis.
- BOS grade: Spirometry % of baseline
- 0: FEV1 >90% and FEF25-75% >75%
- 0-p: FEV1 81-90% and FEF25-75% ≤75%
- 1: FEV1 66-80%
- 2: FEV1 51-65%
- 3: FEV1 ≤50%
- Percent of Participants Listed for Re-Transplant During the Study Follow-Up Period [ Time Frame: Up to 35 months post-transplant ]Participants with a reported date of listing for a second lung transplant during the study follow-up period.
- Percent of Participants Who Died During the Study Follow-Up Period [ Time Frame: Up to 35 months post-transplant ]Participants with a reported date of death were considered to have met this outcome.
- Percent of Participants With Primary Graft Dysfunction (PGD) [ Time Frame: Up to 72 hours post-transplant ]
The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation's (ISHLT) grading for Primary Graft Dysfunction (PGD) was used. The severity of PGD is graded 0 - 3 based on the presence or absence of diffuse opacities on chest radiograph and the ratio of arterial oxygen pressure to inspired oxygen concentration. The grading system predicts post-lung transplant outcomes with Grade 3 being the worse.
Participants were classified as having PGD if graded as 2 or 3 at any time during the first 72 hours post-transplant.
- Percent of Participants With Occurrence of Grade A Acute Rejection [ Time Frame: Up to 24 months post-transplant ]
Pulmonary allograft rejection was defined according to the 2007 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation's (ISHLT). Each transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) was evaluated by the local center's pathologist and graded as described below.
Acute Cellular Rejection (ACR) Grade Classification:
- A0: None
- A1: Minimal
- A2: Mild
- A3: Moderate
- A4: Severe
Participants met this outcome if at any point in time their biopsy was classified as A2, A3, or A4.
- Percent of Participants With Occurrence of Antibody Mediated Rejection [ Time Frame: Up to 24 months post-transplant ]
Antibody Mediated Rejection (AMR) was defined based on the revision of the 1996 Working Formulation for the Standardization of Nomenclature in the Diagnosis of Lung Rejection, the Pathology of pulmonary AMR and the 2012 update from the Pathology Council of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT).
AMR was diagnosed locally and graded as:
- Grade I: Latent humoral response - Donor Specific Antibody (DSA) or autoantibody present and absence of both abnormal histology and unexplained graft dysfunction
- Grade II: Subclinical humoral rejection - DSA or autoantibody present and abnormal histology present with an absence of unexplained graft dysfunction
- Grade III: Humoral rejection - DSA or autoantibody present and abnormal histology present and unexplained graft dysfunction present.
Higher grades indicate more severe AMR.
Participants were considered to have met this outcome if at any point in time their biopsy was classified as Grade II or III.
- Percent of Participants Meeting Tacrolimus Variability Threshold [ Time Frame: Up to 24 months post-transplant ]
Tacrolimus trough levels are generally collected post-transplant to allow clinicians to monitor transplant recipients' adherence to prescribed tacrolimus dosing. This outcome was designed for research purposes as an indicator of adherence to tacrolimus over time.
Beginning at 3 months post-transplant, a rolling standard deviation (SD) was estimated for each participant who had at least 3 outpatient trough levels collected and recorded. The estimated SD could derive from up to 1 year worth of trough levels at any given time. The larger the SD (variation) of tacrolimus levels, the greater the nonadherence of participant(s) taking tacrolimus as prescribed. Nonadherence is a major reason for post-transplant morbidity.
Participants were considered to have met this outcome, the tacrolimus variability threshold, if their estimated SD of tacrolimus medication levels at any time was 2.0 ng/mL or greater.
- Percent of Participants Meeting Tacrolimus Variability Threshold Who Completed Tacrolimus Variability Intervention [ Time Frame: Up to 27 months post-transplant ]
For participants who met the Tacrolimus Variability Threshold and agreed to participate in the Tacrolimus Variability Intervention (TVI), a series of calls with the participant, parent(s)/guardian(s), and trained call center personnel were conducted to address barriers to adherence.
Refer to Outcome Measure 8 for a description of tacrolimus variability threshold methodology.
- Magnitude of Change in Standard Deviation of Tacrolimus Levels Following Intervention [ Time Frame: Up to 19 months post-transplant ]Standard deviation (SD) is a number that describes how a group of measurements are spread out around the average value for that group. A low SD value means the numbers are close to the average; a high SD means the numbers are more spread out. The change in SD of tacrolimus levels was calculated by subtracting each participant's pre-intervention SD from their SD 180 days after enrollment into the intervention (i.e., value of SD 180 days after enrollment minus value of SD before enrollment). A change less than zero (i.e., a negative number) would indicate a decrease in SD, which is good, possibly as a result of the intervention.
- Percent of Participants Experiencing an Infection Episode [ Time Frame: Up to 24 months post-transplant ]
- A local report of bacterial, fungal, or viral infection through either the organism specific case report form (CRF) or adverse event reporting; or
Presence of symptoms at the time of a study visit without a local report of infection but with a corresponding Core Lab identified viral infection
- All symptoms reported at the time of a study visit were evaluated for any Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections identified by the Core Lab
- For any other infections identified in Core Lab Nasopharyngeal (NP) and Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) biospecimens: shortness of breath, new x-ray or other imaging finding, new supplemental oxygen requirement, cough with sputum, and decreased spirometry were evaluated signs/symptoms.
Participants were considered to have met this outcome if at any point in time they had an infection meeting the referenced criteria.
- Number of Participants With Severity of Infection Episodes [ Time Frame: Up to 24 months post-transplant ]
The severity of infection episodes was determined by the site Principal Investigator (PI) using the adverse event (AE) scale of mild to moderate (Grade <3), severe (Grade 3), life-threatening (Grade 4), or fatal (Grade 5).
Since the protocol restricted AE reporting to only those events which met National Cancer Institute - Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE) version 4.0 grading criteria of Grade 3 (moderate) or higher, any infection not reported as an AE was assigned a severity of Grade <3 (effectively combining Grades 1 and 2); all other infections utilized the assigned CTCAE severity grade of the corresponding AE. A higher severity grade indicates a more severe event.
- Percent of Participants Experiencing a Serious Adverse Event (SAE) Related to Rituximab [ Time Frame: Up to 35 months post-transplant ]The percentage of participants with Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) as determined by the trial's medical monitor to be related to rituximab is reported.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02266888
|United States, California|
|Palo Alto, California, United States, 94305|
|United States, Massachusetts|
|Children's Hospital Boston|
|Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02115|
|United States, Missouri|
|Saint Louis, Missouri, United States, 63110|
|United States, Ohio|
|Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center|
|Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, 45229|
|Nationwide Children's Hospital|
|Columbus, Ohio, United States, 43205|
|United States, Pennsylvania|
|Children's Hospital of Philadelphia|
|Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104|
|United States, Texas|
|Texas Children's Hospital|
|Houston, Texas, United States, 77030|
|Study Chair:||Stuart Sweet, M.D., Ph.D.||Washington University Medical Center: Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy, Immunology and Pulmonary Medicine|
|Study Chair:||Lara Danziger-Isakov, M.D., M.P.H.||Cincinnati Children's Hospital: Division of Infectious Diseases|