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A Study of Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) Versus Paclitaxel, Docetaxel, or Vinflunine for Participants With Advanced Urothelial Cancer (MK-3475-045/KEYNOTE-045)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02256436
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : October 3, 2014
Results First Posted : August 31, 2017
Last Update Posted : September 20, 2021
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.

Brief Summary:
Participants with metastatic or locally advanced/unresectable urothelial cancer that has recurred or progressed following platinum-based chemotherapy will be randomly assigned to receive Investigator's choice of paclitaxel, docetaxel, or vinflunine (Control), or pembrolizumab. The primary study hypotheses are that pembrolizumab will prolong Overall Survival (OS) and Progression-free Survival (PFS) compared to paclitaxel, docetaxel, or vinflunine.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Urothelial Cancer Biological: pembrolizumab Drug: paclitaxel Drug: vinflunine Drug: docetaxel Phase 3

Detailed Description:

For the purposes of this study, participants with a programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) combined positive score (CPS) ≥10% were considered to have a strongly PD-L1 positive tumor status and participants with PD-L1 CPS ≥1% were considered to have a PD-L1 positive tumor status.

Effective with Amendment 15, eligible participants who are allocated to the Control arm (Investigator's Choice) and experience disease progression will be provided with the opportunity to switch over to receive pembrolizumab 200 mg one time every three weeks (Q3W) for up to two years of treatment.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 542 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase III Randomized Clinical Trial of Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) Versus Paclitaxel, Docetaxel or Vinflunine in Subjects With Recurrent or Progressive Metastatic Urothelial Cancer
Actual Study Start Date : October 22, 2014
Actual Primary Completion Date : September 7, 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : October 1, 2020

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Control
Participants receive paclitaxel 175 mg/m^2 intravenously (IV) or docetaxel 75 mg/m^2 IV or vinflunine 320 mg/m^2 IV, on Day 1 of each 3-week cycle (Q3W). Eligible participants who experience disease progression may be able to switch over to receive pembrolizumab 200 mg Q3W for up to 35 treatment administrations (up to approximately 2 years).
Drug: paclitaxel
IV infusion

Drug: vinflunine
IV infusion

Drug: docetaxel
IV infusion

Experimental: Pembrolizumab
Participants receive pembrolizumab 200 mg IV on Day 1 Q3W. Eligible participants who stop pembrolizumab with Stable Disease (SD) or better but progress after discontinuation may be able to initiate a second course of pembrolizumab 200 mg for up to 17 cycles (up to approximately 1 additional year).
Biological: pembrolizumab
IV infusion
Other Names:
  • MK-3475
  • KEYTRUDA®




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Progression-Free Survival (PFS) Per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors Version 1.1 (RECIST 1.1) - All Participants [ Time Frame: Through primary analysis database cut-off date of 07-Sep-2016 (Up to approximately 20 months) ]
    PFS was defined as the time from randomization to the first documented disease progression, or death due to any cause, whichever occurred first. Per RECIST 1.1, progressive disease (PD) was defined as at least a 20% increase in the sum of diameters of target lesions. In addition to the relative increase of 20%, the sum must also demonstrate an absolute increase of at least 5 mm. Note: The appearance of one or more new lesions was also considered PD. The PFS per RECIST 1.1 was assessed by blinded independent central review (BICR) in all participants up through the primary analysis database cut-off date of 07-Sep-2016.

  2. Overall Survival (OS) - All Participants [ Time Frame: Through primary analysis database cut-off date of 07-Sep-2016 (Up to approximately 20 months) ]
    OS was defined as the time from randomization to death due to any cause. The OS was assessed in all participants up through the primary analysis database cut-off date of 07-Sep-2016.

  3. PFS Per RECIST 1.1 - Participants With Programmed Cell Death-Ligand (PD-L1) Positive Tumors [ Time Frame: Through primary analysis database cut-off date of 07-Sep-2016 (Up to approximately 20 months) ]
    PFS was defined as the time from randomization to the first documented disease progression, or death due to any cause, whichever occurred first. Per RECIST 1.1, PD was defined as at least a 20% increase in the sum of diameters of target lesions. In addition to the relative increase of 20%, the sum must also demonstrate an absolute increase of at least 5 mm. Note: The appearance of one or more new lesions was also considered PD. PFS per RECIST 1.1 was assessed by BICR in all participants who had PD-L1 positive tumors (combined positive score [CPS] ≥1%) up through the primary analysis database cut-off date of 07-Sep-2016.

  4. OS - Participants With PD-L1 Positive Tumors [ Time Frame: Through primary analysis database cut-off date of 07-Sep-2016 (Up to approximately 20 months) ]
    OS was defined as the time from randomization to death due to any cause. For the purposes of this study, participants with PD-L1 CPS ≥1% were considered to have a PD-L1 positive tumor status. OS was assessed in all participants who had PD-L1 positive tumors (CPS ≥1%) up through the primary analysis database cut-off date of 07-Sep-2016.

  5. PFS Per RECIST 1.1 - Participants With Strongly PD-L1 Positive Tumors [ Time Frame: Through primary analysis database cut-off date of 07-Sep-2016 (Up to approximately 20 months) ]
    PFS was defined as the time from randomization to the first documented disease progression, or death due to any cause, whichever occurred first. Per RECIST 1.1, PD was defined as at least a 20% increase in the sum of diameters of target lesions. In addition to the relative increase of 20%, the sum must also demonstrate an absolute increase of at least 5 mm. Note: The appearance of one or more new lesions was also considered PD. PFS per RECIST 1.1 was assessed by BICR in all participants who had strongly PD-L1 positive tumors (CPS ≥10%) up through the primary analysis database cut-off date of 07-Sep-2016.

  6. OS - Participants With Strongly PD-L1 Positive Tumors [ Time Frame: Through primary analysis database cut-off date of 07-Sep-2016 (Up to approximately 20 months) ]
    OS was defined as the time from randomization to death due to any cause. For the purposes of this study, participants with a PD-L1 CPS ≥10% were considered to have a strongly PD-L1 positive tumor status. The OS was assessed in all participants who had strongly PD-L1 positive tumors (CPS ≥10%) up through the primary analysis database cut-off date of 07-Sep-2016.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Participants Who Experienced an Adverse Event (AE) [ Time Frame: Through final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017 (Up to approximately 34 months) ]
    An AE was defined as any untoward medical occurrence in a participant administered a pharmaceutical product and which did not necessarily have to have a causal relationship with this treatment. Participants were monitored for the occurrence nonserious AEs for up to 30 days after last dose of study treatment and for serious AEs for up to 90 days after last dose of study treatment. The number of participants who experienced an AE was reported for each arm.

  2. Number of Participants Who Discontinued Study Treatment Due to an AE [ Time Frame: Through final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017 (Up to approximately 34 months) ]
    An AE was defined as any untoward medical occurrence in a participant administered a pharmaceutical product and which did not necessarily have to have a causal relationship with this treatment. Participants were monitored for the occurrence nonserious AEs for up to 30 days after last dose of study treatment and for serious AEs for up to 90 days after last dose of study treatment. The number of participants who discontinued study treatment due to an AE was reported for each arm.

  3. Objective Response Rate (ORR) Per RECIST 1.1 - Participants With Strongly PD-L1 Positive Tumors [ Time Frame: Through final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017 (Up to approximately 34 months) ]
    ORR was defined as the percentage of participants in the analysis population who had a Complete Response (CR: disappearance of all target lesions) or a Partial Response (PR: at least a 30% decrease in the sum of diameters of target lesions) per RECIST 1.1. ORR was assessed by BICR in participants with strongly PD-L1 positive tumors (CPS ≥10%) up through the final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017.

  4. ORR Per RECIST 1.1 - Participants With PD-L1 Positive Tumors [ Time Frame: Through final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017 (Up to approximately 34 months) ]
    ORR was defined as the percentage of participants in the analysis population who had a CR (disappearance of all target lesions) or a PR (at least a 30% decrease in the sum of diameters of target lesions) per RECIST 1.1. ORR was assessed by BICR in participants with PD-L1 positive tumors (CPS ≥1%) up through the final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017.

  5. ORR Per RECIST 1.1 - All Participants [ Time Frame: Through final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017 (Up to approximately 34 months) ]
    ORR was defined as the percentage of participants in the analysis population who had a CR (disappearance of all target lesions) or a PR (at least a 30% decrease in the sum of diameters of target lesions) per RECIST 1.1. ORR was assessed by BICR in all participants up through the final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017.

  6. PFS Per Modified RECIST (mRECIST) - Participants With Strongly PD-L1 Positive Tumors [ Time Frame: Through final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017 (Up to approximately 34 months) ]
    PFS was defined as the time from randomization to the first documented disease progression, or death due to any cause, whichever occurred first. Per mRECIST, PD was defined was defined as at least 20% increase in the sum of diameters of target lesions. In addition to the relative increase of 20%, the sum must also demonstrate an absolute increase of at least 5 mm. Note: The appearance of one or more new lesions was also considered PD. Per mRECIST, confirmation by a repeat, consecutive assessment no less than 4 weeks from the date first documented was required for participants remaining on treatment following PD per RECIST 1.1. PFS per mRECIST was assessed by BICR in participants with strongly PD-L1 positive tumors (CPS ≥10%) up through the final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017.

  7. PFS Per mRECIST - Participants With PD-L1 Positive Tumors [ Time Frame: Through final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017 (Up to approximately 34 months) ]
    PFS was defined as the time from randomization to the first documented disease progression, or death due to any cause, whichever occurred first. Per mRECIST, PD was defined was defined as at least 20% increase in the sum of diameters of target lesions. In addition to the relative increase of 20%, the sum must also demonstrate an absolute increase of at least 5 mm. Note: The appearance of one or more new lesions was also considered PD. Per mRECIST, confirmation by a repeat, consecutive assessment no less than 4 weeks from the date first documented was required for participants remaining on treatment following PD per RECIST 1.1. PFS per mRECIST was assessed by BICR in participants with PD-L1 positive tumors (CPS ≥1%) up through the final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017.

  8. PFS Per mRECIST - All Participants [ Time Frame: Through final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017 (Up to approximately 34 months) ]
    PFS was defined as the time from randomization to the first documented disease progression, or death due to any cause, whichever occurred first. Per mRECIST, PD was defined as at least 20% increase in the sum of diameters of target lesions. In addition to the relative increase of 20%, the sum must also demonstrate an absolute increase of at least 5 mm. Note: The appearance of one or more new lesions was also considered PD. Per mRECIST, confirmation by a repeat, consecutive assessment no less than 4 weeks from the date first documented was required for participants remaining on treatment following PD per RECIST 1.1. PFS per mRECIST was assessed by BICR in all randomized participants up through the final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017.

  9. ORR Per mRECIST - Participants With Strongly PD-L1 Positive Tumors [ Time Frame: Through final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017 (Up to approximately 34 months) ]
    ORR per mRECIST was defined as the percentage of participants in the analysis population who had a CR (complete disappearance of all lesions (and no new lesions), with confirmation by a repeat, consecutive assessment no less than 4 weeks from the date first documented) or a PR (decrease in tumor burden ≥50% relative to baseline confirmed by a consecutive assessment at least 4 weeks after first documentation). ORR per mRECIST was assessed by BICR in participants with strongly PD-L1 positive tumors (CPS ≥10%) up through the final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017.

  10. ORR Per mRECIST - Participants With PD-L1 Positive Tumors [ Time Frame: Through final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017 (Up to approximately 34 months) ]
    ORR per mRECIST was defined as the percentage of participants in the analysis population who had a CR (complete disappearance of all lesions (and no new lesions), with confirmation by a repeat, consecutive assessment no less than 4 weeks from the date first documented) or a PR (decrease in tumor burden ≥50% relative to baseline confirmed by a consecutive assessment at least 4 weeks after first documentation). ORR per mRECIST was assessed by BICR in participants with PD-L1 positive tumors (CPS ≥1%) up through the final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017.

  11. ORR Per mRECIST - All Participants [ Time Frame: Through final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017 (Up to approximately 34 months) ]
    ORR per mRECIST was defined as the percentage of participants in the analysis population who had a CR (complete disappearance of all lesions (and no new lesions), with confirmation by a repeat, consecutive assessment no less than 4 weeks from the date first documented) or a PR (decrease in tumor burden ≥50% relative to baseline confirmed by a consecutive assessment at least 4 weeks after first documentation). ORR per mRECIST was assessed by BICR in all participants up through the final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017.

  12. Duration of Response (DOR) Per RECIST 1.1 - Participants With Strongly PD-L1 Positive Tumors [ Time Frame: Through final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017 (Up to approximately 34 months) ]
    For participants who demonstrated a confirmed response (CR or PR) per RECIST 1.1, DOR was defined as the time from first documented evidence of CR or PR until disease progression or death. Per protocol, the DOR was to be censored at the date of the last tumor assessment for participants who had progressed or died after 2 or more missed visits, who had started a new anti-cancer treatment, who were lost to follow-up, or who had an ongoing response. DOR was assessed in all participants who had strongly PD-L1 positive tumors (CPS ≥10%) based on BICR and was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method.

  13. DOR Per RECIST 1.1 - Participants With PD-L1 Positive Tumors [ Time Frame: Through final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017 (Up to approximately 34 months) ]
    For participants who demonstrated a confirmed response (CR or PR) per RECIST 1.1, DOR was defined as the time from first documented evidence of CR or PR until disease progression or death. Per protocol, the DOR was to be censored at the date of the last tumor assessment for participants who had progressed or died after 2 or more missed visits, who had started a new anti-cancer treatment, who were lost to follow-up, or who had an ongoing response. DOR was assessed in all participants who had PD-L1 positive tumors (CPS ≥1%) based on BICR and was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method.

  14. DOR Per RECIST 1.1 - All Participants [ Time Frame: Through final analysis database cut-off date of 26-Oct-2017 (Up to approximately 34 months) ]
    For participants who demonstrated a confirmed response (CR or PR) per RECIST 1.1, DOR was defined as the time from first documented evidence of CR or PR until disease progression or death. Per protocol, the DOR was to be censored at the date of the last tumor assessment for participants who had progressed or died after 2 or more missed visits, who had started a new anti-cancer treatment, who were lost to follow-up, or who had an ongoing response. DOR was assessed in all participants based on BICR and was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion criteria:

  • Histologically- or cytologically-confirmed diagnosis of urothelial cancer of the renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, or urethra, that is transitional cell or mixed transitional/non-transitional (predominantly transitional) cell type
  • Progression or recurrence of urothelial cancer following a first-line platinum-containing regimen (e.g cisplatin, carboplatin) for metastatic or inoperable locally advanced disease; or adjuvant platinum-based therapy following cystectomy for localized muscle-invasive urothelial cancer with recurrence/progression <=12 months following completion of therapy; or neoadjuvant platinum-containing therapy prior to cystectomy for localized muscle-invasive urothelial cancer with recurrence <=12 months following completion of therapy
  • No more than 2 prior lines of systemic chemotherapy for metastatic urothelial cancer
  • Able to provide tissue for biomarker analysis from an archival tissue sample or newly obtained core or excisional biopsy of a tumor lesion not previously irradiated
  • Measureable disease
  • Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0, 1, or 2
  • Adequate organ function
  • Female participants of childbearing potential have a negative urine or serum pregnancy test; or are surgically sterile, or willing to use 2 acceptable methods of birth control, or abstain from heterosexual activity for the course of the study through 120 days after the last dose of pembrolizumab or 180 days after the last dose of paclitaxel, docetaxel, or vinflunine
  • Male participants must be willing to use an adequate method of contraception starting with the first dose of study medication through 120 days after the last dose of pembrolizumab or 180 days after the last dose of paclitaxel, docetaxel, or vinflunine

Exclusion criteria:

  • Urothelial cancer that is suitable for local therapy administered with curative intent
  • Currently participating in or has participated in a study of an investigational agent or using an investigational device within 4 weeks prior to the first dose of trial medication
  • Diagnosis of immunodeficiency or receiving systemic steroid therapy or any other form of immunosuppressive therapy within 7 days prior to the first dose of study medication
  • Anti-cancer monoclonal antibody (mAb) within 4 weeks prior to study Day 1 or not recovered from adverse events due to agents administered more than 4 weeks earlier
  • Prior chemotherapy, targeted small molecule therapy, or radiation therapy within 2 weeks of study Day 1 or not recovered from adverse events due to a previously administered agent
  • Prior therapy with all choices of active comparator
  • Known additional malignancy that is progressing or requires active treatment with the exception of basal cell carcinoma of the skin, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin that has undergone potentially curative therapy or in situ cancer; or prostate cancer that was identified incidentally following cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer that is Stage T2N0M0 or lower, Gleason score<= 6, or prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) undetectable
  • Known active central nervous system (CNS) metastases and/or carcinomatous meningitis
  • Active autoimmune disease requiring systemic treatment within the past 3 months or a documented history of clinically severe autoimmune disease, or a syndrome that requires systemic or immunosuppressive agents
  • Active cardiac disease
  • Evidence of interstitial lung disease or active non-infectious pneumonitis
  • Active infection requiring systemic therapy
  • History of severe hypersensitivity reaction to paclitaxel, docetaxel, or to other drugs formulated with polysorbate 80 or polyoxyethylated castor oil, or to vinflunine or other vinca alkaloids
  • Requires ongoing therapy with a medication that is a strong inhibitor or inducer of the cytochrome 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzymes
  • Pregnant, breastfeeding, or expecting to conceive or father children within the projected duration of the trial, starting with the screening visit through 120 days after the last dose of pembrolizumab or 180 days after the last dose of paclitaxel, docetaxel, or vinflunine
  • Prior therapy with an anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) or anti-PD-Ligand 1 agent, or with an agent directed to another co-inhibitory T-cell receptor
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • Active hepatitis B or hepatitis C
  • Received a live virus vaccine within 30 days of planned start of trial treatment

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02256436


Sponsors and Collaborators
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
Investigators
Layout table for investigator information
Study Director: Medical Director Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.:
Additional Information:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):

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Responsible Party: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02256436    
Other Study ID Numbers: 3475-045
2014-002009-40 ( EudraCT Number )
152903 ( Registry Identifier: JAPIC-CTI )
MK-3475-045 ( Other Identifier: Merck Protocol Number )
First Posted: October 3, 2014    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: August 31, 2017
Last Update Posted: September 20, 2021
Last Verified: August 2021
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: http://engagezone.msd.com/doc/ProcedureAccessClinicalTrialData.pdf
URL: http://engagezone.msd.com/ds_documentation.php

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.:
Programmed Cell Death-1 (PD1, PD-1)
Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PDL1, PD-L1)
Bladder cancer
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Paclitaxel
Docetaxel
Pembrolizumab
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
Antineoplastic Agents
Tubulin Modulators
Antimitotic Agents
Mitosis Modulators
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological