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Using Artificial Intelligence To Monitor Medication Adherence in Opioid Replacement Therapy

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02243670
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : September 18, 2014
Last Update Posted : September 12, 2017
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Orexo AB
Montefiore Medical Center
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
AiCure

Brief Summary:

This study uses an artificial intelligence platform to automatically confirm medication ingestion. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant platform can be downloaded as an 'app' onto any smartphone to automate directly observed therapy (Automated DOT®). Real-time patient adherence data are encrypted and automatically sent to a centralized web-based dashboard for use by healthcare professionals or research staff. Unlike Facetime® or Skype®, the system relies on computer vision algorithms to confirm the process of medication administration; no human review is necessary.

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability, and measure the accuracy, of the AiCure platform ("platform") in patients being treated for opioid dependence with Zubsolv® over the course of 12 weeks. The following aims will be tested: 1) to assess the feasibility and acceptability to both participants and study staff in using AiCure to monitor medication adherence; 2) to evaluate the acceptability of using AiCure to optimize care pathways; and 3) to measure the reliability and validity of AiCure in detecting interruptions in treatment. To assess feasibility and acceptability of the platform, we will measure rates of physician satisfaction and user acceptance. Optimization of care pathways will be measured by assessing the sustainability of AiCure use over 12 weeks (retention rates) and measuring illicit opioid use (urine drug screens) compared to historical data. Reliability and validity of AiCure will be measured by comparing AiCure adherence against pharmacokinetic data.

All participants will be requested to take each of their prescribed doses using the app. Participants will be able to download the app onto their own smartphone or will be provisioned a device at the start of the study. The data captured during the medication ingestion process will be automatically encrypted and stored on the participant smartphone and uploaded wirelessly to a cloud-based dashboard. If a participant is non-adherent (missed dose, incorrect dosage) or if suspicious behavior is detected, an automated alert will be sent to study staff via email or SMS to prompt immediate intervention. In addition, all participants will receive treatment as usual.


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Opiate Addiction Medication Non-adherence Addiction Opioid Dependence Device: AiCure monitoring and intervention Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

This study will employ a multi-site, single-arm design. A total of approximately 50-100 participants - patients stable for at least 2 weeks on their current opioid replacement medication - will be recruited for the study. All participants will receive their doctor's treatment-as-usual. Patients not currently prescribed Zubsolv® will be switched to Zubsolv®.

Study visits include a screening visit, one baseline visit (which ideally will occur between 7 and 14 days after the screening visit), and bi-weekly visits for the 12 weeks (six visits) following the baseline visit. During the baseline visit, participants will be trained on how to use the AiCure app. Training consists of a number of interactive training steps to teach the participant how to use the app correctly. Participants will be provided with three placebo tablets for the training.

Study participants will be reimbursed to cover their time and transportation costs in accordance with Institutional Review Board (IRB) guidelines. Participants will receive contingency management (CM) to reinforce regular use of the app. Orexo AB will provide the study drug, Zubsolv®, to all participants throughout the 12-week treatment duration.

For the length of the study, participants will be requested to take each dose of their prescribed Zubsolv® regimen using the AiCure app. Each medication administration event will be saved onto the participant's smartphone and encrypted data (including de-identified video and time and date of administration) will be automatically transmitted to the centralized dashboard. Research staff will have access to the dashboard to view real-time and detailed dosing histories for each participant. Access to the dashboard is roles-based and password-protected. If a participant does not dose using the AiCure app (misses/skips a dose), self-reports on the device or over the phone, or is tagged for suspicious behavior, the participant will receive a combination of automated SMS text messages and tailored SMS text messages / phone calls from research staff based on the pre-defined escalation protocol.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 9 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Feasibility and Validity of Using a Novel Artificial Intelligence Platform to Monitor and Optimize Medication Adherence in Patients Receiving Opioid Replacement Therapy
Actual Study Start Date : August 2016
Actual Primary Completion Date : March 2017
Actual Study Completion Date : March 2017

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: AiCure monitoring and intervention
Participants will use the AiCure app to monitor ingestion of all prescribed doses of Zubsolv®.
Device: AiCure monitoring and intervention
Participants will use the AiCure app to monitor ingestion of all prescribed doses of Zubsolv®. If a participant misses a dose, takes an incorrect dose, or their data are flagged for suspicious activity, they will be contacted by research staff or the AiCure study team through automated SMS text or by phone.
Other Name: Automated DOT




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability to participants and study staff in using AiCure to monitor medication adherence. [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
    Participants and study staff using AiCure to monitor medication adherence will show high rates of physician satisfaction and user acceptance, based on a pre-post design using surveys and observations.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. To evaluate the acceptability of using AiCure to optimize care pathways. [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
    Optimization of care pathways will be measured by assessing the sustainability of AiCure use over 12 weeks (retention rates) and measuring the fraction of bi-weekly urines positive for illicit opioids (urine drug screens) compared to historical data.

  2. To measure the reliability and validity of AiCure in detecting interruptions in treatment. [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
    Comparing the sensitivity of AiCure adherence data and pharmacokinetic data in detecting interruptions in treatment.

  3. The degree of participant maximum craving (during the 24 hour period prior to the study visit) for opioids as measured by the Brief Substance Craving Scale (BSCS). [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
  4. The change in participant's psychosocial well being over time as measured by the seven subscales of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]


Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Is a male or female at least 18 years of age.
  • Has been on a stable dose of buprenorphine/naloxone for at least 2 weeks.
  • Is willing to sign a consent form to allow research staff to receive information from their healthcare provider that will verify above inclusion criteria (length of time on stable dose), to administer blood draws, and to perform diagnostic assessments as described in this protocol.
  • Is willing to sign an agreement to return the AiCure provisioned device if not able to download AiCure app onto personal smartphone.
  • Is willing to use the AiCure app properly each time they ingest their daily dose of buprenorphine/naloxone.
  • Is willing to allow research staff (and good clinical practice-trained AiCure personnel) to contact them via the app or other specified means regarding issues related to medication non-adherence.
  • Speaks and understands English well enough to participate in the informed consent process and the study assessments and procedures.
  • Agrees to come for a research visit monthly for 12 weeks (three visits) after being accepted into the study and two times during screening/baseline.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Is unlikely to remain under the care of their healthcare provider for the duration of the study.
  • Appears to be incapable of learning the AiCure system.
  • In the opinion of the investigator, is someone who should not be part of the study due to behavioral, mental, physical, or other issues.
  • Is under court mandate to obtain treatment.
  • Has a known allergy to any of the substances comprising the study medication.
  • Is planning to be detoxified from Zubzolv during the course of the study.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02243670


Locations
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United States, New York
Montefiore Medical Center
New York, New York, United States, 10461
Sponsors and Collaborators
AiCure
Orexo AB
Montefiore Medical Center
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Alain Litwin, MD Montefiore Medical Center
Study Director: Adam Hanina, MBA, MPhil AiCure
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Responsible Party: AiCure
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02243670    
Other Study ID Numbers: AIC-HHSN271201300036C-01
HHSN271201300036C ( Other Identifier: NIDA Contract )
First Posted: September 18, 2014    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: September 12, 2017
Last Verified: September 2017
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Keywords provided by AiCure:
opioid addiction
opioid substitution therapy
addiction
buprenorphine maintenance treatment
opioid dependence
substitution treatment
noncompliance
opiate addiction
Zubzolv® maintenance
adherence monitoring
directly observed therapy
medication adherence
adherence
mobile
electronic monitoring
wireless
mobile device
artificial intelligence
facial recognition
computer vision
visual confirmation
sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone
nonadherence
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Opioid-Related Disorders
Behavior, Addictive
Compulsive Behavior
Impulsive Behavior
Substance-Related Disorders
Chemically-Induced Disorders
Mental Disorders