COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation.
Get the latest public health information from CDC:

Get the latest research information from NIH: Menu

Clinical Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Anakinra in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis and Diabetes (TRACK)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02236481
Recruitment Status : Terminated (Decision of the Sponsor for Early Benefits)
First Posted : September 10, 2014
Last Update Posted : December 14, 2018
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Prof. Roberto Giacomelli, University of L'Aquila

Brief Summary:
The TRACK [Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Comorbidities with Kineret (anakinra)]-study: a randomized, open-label multicenter study assessing the efficacy of anakinra in lowering HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin) as well as changes in DAS28 in Rheumatoid Arthritis (R.A.) patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) Authors: R. Giacomelli,(A,B) P. Cipriani (A) and P. Ruscitti (A) on behalf of the TRACK study-group; (A) University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy; Background: Interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays a pivotal role in R.A., joint erosion and cartilage destruction.(1) Anakinra (a recombinant form of the naturally occurring IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), which blocks the activity of both IL-1α and IL-1β) has shown in a number of RCTs (2-6) to be effective in the treatment of R.A., in monotherapy,(2,4) as well as associated to methotrexate (MTX).(3,5,6) IL-1β plays also an important role in the pathogenesis of T2D: Glucose has been shown to induce IL-1β hypersecretion through inflammasome activation, while IL-1β induces impairment of β-cell secretory function and β-cell apoptosis.(7) In prediabetic subjects, the expression of IL-1Ra is induced by IL-1β and reflects the body's response to counterbalance increased IL-1β activity.(7) Levels of IL-1Ra tend to rise up to 6 years before the diagnosis of T2D.(8,9) IL-1Ra has been successfully used as a marker for the risk of developing T2D in subjects with metabolic syndrome.(10) As a clinical proof of concept, IL-1 inhibition with anakinra in patients with T2D has shown to improve the secretorial function of beta-cells as well as to lower the ratio of proinsulin/insulin and glycated hemoglobin/hemoglobin significantly, favoring glycemic control and possibly reducing the severity and prevalence of the associated complications of this disease.(11) Summarizing, IL-1 inhibition with anakinra has a clinical impact on R.A. as well as T2D. As from 6-10% of Italian R.A. patients have also T2D, this trial aims at investigating the impact of IL-1 inhibition on both diseases. Very recent data also show that T2D is a predictor of response to anakinra-treatment in R.A. patients,(12) which furthermore justifies the use of anakinra in this subset of R.A. patients. Objectives: [Primary] To evaluate the change in HbA1c between baseline, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and at last follow up of 2 years from the beginning; [Secondary] To evaluate the efficacy on controlling signs & symptoms of R.A., assessing the remission rate at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and at follow up (2 years), using the evaluation scale of disease activity on 28 joints, DAS28 and SDAI improvements from baseline conditions over time points, according to EULAR response criteria. Methods: 200 patients in 28 Italian centers with active R.A. refractory to treatment with methotrexate and T2D will be enrolled and randomized to receive either 100mg of anakinra once daily by subcutaneous injection or any anti-TNF-alfa drug treatment. [84 subjects will be required in each treatment arm to reach 90% power with an alpha error of 0.05 to detect a mean difference between the study arms of 0.25 percentage points of HbA1c . The assumed difference of HbA1c is rather conservative when compared to previously published changes in T2D patients (11).] Anti-diabetic treatment is required to be unchanged for at least one month prior to enrolment. Patients will be invited to maintain dietary habits and lifestyle during the study period. Further details can be viewed on the trials website after subscription.(13) References: (1) Arend & Dayer, Adv. Imm. 1993; 54: 167-227. (2) Bresnihan, Arthritis Rheum. 1998; 41: 2196-2204. (3) Cohen, Arthritis Rheum. 2002; 46: 614-624. (4) Nuki, Arthritis. Rheum. 2002; 46: 2838-2846. (5) Cohen, ARD 2004; 63: 1062-1068. (6) Cohen, Rheumatology 2004; 43: 704-711. (7) Donath, Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2011; 11: 98-107. (8) Herder, Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 421-423. (9) Carstensen, Diabetes 2010; 59: 1222-1227. (10) Luotola, J. Intern. Med. 2011; 269: 322-332. (11) Larsen, NEJM 2007; 356: 1517-1526. (12) Missler-Karger, EULAR 2013, Abs. FRI0219. (13) Disclosure: This trial is receiving support from Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB according to the Italian law decree 17 December 2004. (B) speaker fees

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 Arthritis, Rheumatoid Drug: Anakinra Drug: TNF alpha inhibitors Phase 4

Layout table for study information
Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 41 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: No-profit" Study to Ensure Normal Clinical Practice, to Evaluate the Efficacy of Anakinra in Reducing the Glycated Haemoglobin in Patients Affected by Rheumatoid Arthritis and Diabetes; Randomized, Open Label, Parallel Group,Controlled Clinical Study
Study Start Date : July 2013
Actual Primary Completion Date : December 2017
Actual Study Completion Date : December 2017

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Drug Information available for: Anakinra

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Anakinra
100 mg of anakinra once daily by subcutaneous injection for 24 months
Drug: Anakinra
Other Name: Kineret

Active Comparator: TNF alpha inhibitors
treatment with TNF-alpha inhibitors according to the relative summary of product charateristics
Drug: TNF alpha inhibitors

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Glycated Hemoglobin [ Time Frame: up to 24th months of treatment ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Percentage of patients in remission ( EULAR Criteria ) [ Time Frame: baseline , after 3 months, 6 months , 12 months and 24 months of treatment ]
  2. Percentage of patients improved ( EULAR criteria) [ Time Frame: baseline , after 3 months, 6 months , 12 months and 24 months of treatment ]
  3. Count of tender joints (66 joints) [ Time Frame: baseline , after 3 months, 6 months , 12 months and 24 months of treatment ]
  4. Count of swollen joints (68 joints) [ Time Frame: baseline , after 3 months, 6 months , 12 months and 24 months of treatment ]
  5. Administration at Health Assessment Questionnaire ( HAQ) [ Time Frame: baseline , after 3 months, 6 months , 12 months and 24 months of treatment ]
  6. C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate ( ESR ) [ Time Frame: baseline , after 3 months, 6 months , 12 months and 24 months of treatment: ]
  7. Plasma levels of glucose [ Time Frame: baseline , after 3 months, 6 months , 12 months and 24 months of treatment ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • male and female patients aged ≥ 18 years;
  • previous diagnosis of RA with criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) / European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR);
  • Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus type II according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria since at least 6 months;
  • Patients with an inadequate response to previous treatment with methotrexate (determined on the basis of the evaluation of the physician);
  • BMI <35
  • Glycated hemoglobin > 7% <10%
  • Minimum score Disease Activity Score-28 (DAS 28) > 3.2
  • For patients previously treated with a biologic drug, wash out of the treatment for at least 1 month prior to enrollment;
  • For patients in treatment with hypoglycemic drugs at enrollment, no change of the hypoglycemic treatment in terms of type of drug and dosage, for a period of at least 3 months before enrolment
  • For patients in therapy with other drugs at baseline, no change in terms of drug administered and the dosage regimen for a period of at least 1 month prior to enrollment;
  • Absence of signs and symptoms related to ischemic heart disease
  • Signature of written Informed Consent Form.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • DM2 diagnosed since more than 10 years;
  • Ongoing Acute infection or chronic infection, which has one or more of following:

    • Increased levels of C-reactive protein > 30 mg / L
    • fever
    • Ongoing treatment with antibiotics ;
  • Chronic granulomatous infections (ie. tuberculosis diagnosed by radiography or by laboratory tests)
  • History of recurrent infections or presence of diseases that induce to infections;
  • C-peptide values <0.5 ng / mL ( 0.1665 nmol / L)
  • presence of neutropenia ( WBC < 2000/mm3 ) or anemia (hemoglobin < 11g/dL for man and 10g/dl for the woman) ;
  • presence of one or more contraindication indicate in SmPC of study drug (anakinra);
  • presence of one or more contraindication indicate in SmPC of control drug (inhibitors of TNF -alpha ; ATC L04AB);
  • presence of one or more contraindications to treatment with methotrexate ;
  • previous ischemic attack or myocardial infarction;
  • heart failure NYHA class III or IV;
  • hepatic or progressive liver disease ( values of ALAT / ASAT increased by at least two -fold compared to normal limits );
  • pregnant, or women not using contraceptive measures;
  • breast-feeding;
  • participation in another clinical study up to 6 months before randomization;
  • depressive syndrome or other serious psychiatric illness that, in the opinion of the physician, may preclude participation in the study;
  • presence of known malignancy ;
  • Clinically significant history of alcohol abuse or drug addiction , that, in the opinion of the physician, may preclude participation in the study;
  • any condition that, in the opinion of the physician, precludes the possibility of using the study drug (anakinra , Kineret ) or the control drug (inhibitors of TNF alpha; L04AB ATC ) in compliance with SmPC indications ;
  • any other condition or laboratory parameter that , in the opinion of the physician, precludes the subject's participation in the study.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02236481

Layout table for location information
L'Aquila University
L'Aquila, Italy, 67100
Sponsors and Collaborators
Prof. Roberto Giacomelli
Layout table for investigator information
Principal Investigator: Roberto Giacomelli, Professor University of L'Aquila
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Prof. Roberto Giacomelli, University of L'Aquila:
Study Protocol  [PDF] November 15, 2012
Informed Consent Form  [PDF] November 15, 2012

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Layout table for additonal information
Responsible Party: Prof. Roberto Giacomelli, Full Professor of Rheumatology, University of L'Aquila Identifier: NCT02236481    
Other Study ID Numbers: TRACK
First Posted: September 10, 2014    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: December 14, 2018
Last Verified: December 2018
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Layout table for MeSH terms
Arthritis, Rheumatoid
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Joint Diseases
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Rheumatic Diseases
Connective Tissue Diseases
Autoimmune Diseases
Immune System Diseases
Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein
Antirheumatic Agents