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Comparing the Effect of Whey and Soy Protein on the Absorption of Pomegranate Polyphenols in the Human Body

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02233478
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : September 8, 2014
Last Update Posted : March 17, 2015
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Zhaoping Li, University of California, Los Angeles

Brief Summary:
This study is comparing the quantity of active metabolites from consuming pomegranate juice in three different preparations. People who participate in this study will come in to the Center for a screening visit, which includes a blood test and medical history. If you qualify based on the screening visit, you will then come in to the Center while fasting in the morning on three different days. You will eat a standardized breakfast and drink one of three juices, and then remain for metabolic testing at the Center for a period of time after eating. You will also be provided a standardized lunch and water during this period. Each of those visits will last about 7 hours. During this time, and for the rest of the 24 hours following drinking the juice, you will collect all of your urine. Following all three of these 7-hour visits, you will return to the Center again the next day for a fasting blood draw, drop off your urine sample, and pick up a new container to collect another 24 hour urine sample. The following day, you will return to the Center to drop off your second urine sample collection.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Healthy Dietary Supplement: Pomegranate Juice Dietary Supplement: Soybean Flour Protein Dietary Supplement: Soy Isolate Protein Phase 3

Detailed Description:

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed as pomegranate juice (PJ), and their health benefits have been studied extensively in animals and humans (1-6). The pomegranate fruit is a rich source of polyphenols, most of which are ellagitannins (ETs). Pomegranate extracts,which incorporate these major polyphenols from the pomegranate fruit, have been developed in dry and liquid forms to provide alternative convenient sources for obtaining the bioactive polyphenols found in PJ. We have previously reported on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of pomegranate polyphenols, after the consumption of PJ in normal healthy human volunteers (7). In humans, ETs are converted to ellagic acid (EA) in the small intestines and absorbed with a maximum plasma concentration observed at approximately 1 hour. EA disappears from plasma 6 hours after administration of PJ. Ellagitannins and ellagic acid remaining in the intestine and are then further converted by gut microflora to urolithin-A, absorbed and derivatives, which are metabolized by phase II enzymes and excreted in human urine for up to 48 hours after consumption of PJ(7).

Polyphenols are dietary constituents of plants associated with health-promoting effects. In the human diet, polyphenols are generally consumed in foods along with macronutrients. Because the health benefits of polyphenols are critically determined by their bioavailability, the effect of interactions between plant phenols and food macronutrients is a very important topic. The protein-polyphenol complexes can significantly change the plasma kinetics profile. (8) Protein-polyphenol binding is mediated by a combination of hydrogen and hydrophobic bonding depending on chemical (polarity) and structural (size/shape) properties of interacting molecules. Covalent interactions between purified glycinin, a soybean storage protein, and selected flavonoids and phenolic acids have also been reported. Recently it is reported that protein-rich defatted soybean flour protects anthocyanins during transit through upper digestive tract for subsequent colonic delivery/metabolism (9).


Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 18 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Single (Participant)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: Dietary Protein in Pomegranate Ellagitannin Bioavailability
Study Start Date : August 2014
Actual Primary Completion Date : January 2015
Actual Study Completion Date : January 2015

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Pomegranate Juice
Subjects will be asked to take a dietary supplement on the day of intervention. Prior to intervention, subjects will be asked to avoid high-polyphenol foods, certain vitamins, minerals, herbs and dietary supplements for 4 days, dietary instruction will be provided. Blood samples will be taken at screen for safety labs. On study days 5, 13 and 21 a spot urine will be collected and a 7 hr serial blood draw will be performed at 0 hr, 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr, 4 hr and 6 hr. Subjects will be provided with a light lunch with foods low in polyphenols. Subjects will only be able to eat the foods provided on the intervention days. Subjects will be asked to drink 32oz of water during the 7-hr period. Subjects will also be asked to collect all of their urines for 24 hrs, 2 consecutive days.
Dietary Supplement: Pomegranate Juice
Pomegranate Juice alone

Active Comparator: Soybean Flour Protein
Subjects will be asked to take a dietary supplement on the day of intervention. Prior to intervention, subjects will be asked to avoid high-polyphenol foods, certain vitamins, minerals, herbs and dietary supplements for 4 days, dietary instruction will be provided. Blood samples will be taken at screen for safety labs. On study days 5, 13 and 21 a spot urine will be collected and a 7 hr serial blood draw will be performed at 0 hr, 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr, 4 hr and 6 hr. Subjects will be provided with a light lunch with foods low in polyphenols. Subjects will only be able to eat the foods provided on the intervention days. Subjects will be asked to drink 32oz of water during the 7-hr period. Subjects will also be asked to collect all of their urines for 24 hrs, 2 consecutive days.
Dietary Supplement: Pomegranate Juice
Pomegranate Juice alone

Dietary Supplement: Soybean Flour Protein
Soybean Flour Protein combined with Pomegranate Juice
Other Name: Nutrasorb

Active Comparator: Soy Isolate Protein
Subjects will be asked to take a dietary supplement on the day of intervention. Prior to intervention, subjects will be asked to avoid high-polyphenol foods, certain vitamins, minerals, herbs and dietary supplements for 4 days, dietary instruction will be provided. Blood samples will be taken at screen for safety labs. On study days 5, 13 and 21 a spot urine will be collected and a 7 hr serial blood draw will be performed at 0 hr, 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr, 4 hr and 6 hr. Subjects will be provided with a light lunch with foods low in polyphenols. Subjects will only be able to eat the foods provided on the intervention days. Subjects will be asked to drink 32oz of water during the 7-hr period. Subjects will also be asked to collect all of their urines for 24 hrs, 2 consecutive days.
Dietary Supplement: Pomegranate Juice
Pomegranate Juice alone

Dietary Supplement: Soy Isolate Protein
Soy Isolate Protein combined with Pomegranate Juice
Other Name: Solae




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Bioavailability of Polyphenols in Pomegranate Juice in Normal Healthy Volunteers [ Time Frame: Up to 3 weeks ]
    To compare the bioavailability of polyphenols in normal healthy volunteers when pomegranate extract is consumed alone, with soy isolate protein or protein-rich defatted soy flour.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   20 Years to 45 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Male or female >20 and < 45 years of age at the time the consent form is signed.
  • Subject must sign the Institutional Review Board-approved written informed consent prior to the initiation of any study specific procedures or randomization. A subject will be excluded for any condition that might compromise the ability to give truly informed consent for participation in the study.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Any subject who is eating more than 4 servings per day of fruits and vegetables, taking vitamin supplements or taking any antibiotics or other medication or dietary supplement which interfere with the absorption of polyphenols.
  • Any subjects with a history of gastrointestinal surgery (except for appendectomy), diabetes mellitus, or other serious medical condition, such as chronic hepatitis or renal disease, bleeding disorder, congestive heart disease, chronic diarrhea disorders, myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft, angioplasty within 6 months prior to screening, current diagnosis of uncontrolled hypertension (defined as BP >160mmHg, diastolic BP>95mmHg), active or chronic gastrointestinal disorders, bulimia, anorexia, laxative abuse, or endocrine diseases (except thyroid disease corrected with medication to normal laboratory values) as indicated by medical history or routine physical examination.
  • Major surgery within 12 weeks prior to subject randomization and/or screening, especially cardiac surgery
  • Is currently a smoker who has a therapeutic plan to quit smoking anytime during the study period; or if not a current smoker, has quit smoking within the past 3 months.
  • Known HIV positive.
  • Clinical evidence of current malignancy with the exception of basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Currently receiving systemic chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.
  • Active bleeding.
  • Subject has any disorder (excluding illiteracy or visual impairment) that compromises the ability of the subject to give written informed consent and/or to comply with study procedures.
  • Subject who is allergic to soy protein.
  • In the opinion of the study investigator has a risk of non-compliance with study procedures, or can not read, understand or complete study related materials.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02233478


Locations
United States, California
UCLA Center for Human Nutrition
Los Angeles, California, United States, 90095
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of California, Los Angeles
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Zhaoping Li, MD, PhD UCLA Department of Medicine

Responsible Party: Zhaoping Li, Professor of Medicine and Chief Division of Clinical Nutrition, University of California, Los Angeles
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02233478     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 14-000905
First Posted: September 8, 2014    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 17, 2015
Last Verified: March 2015

Keywords provided by Zhaoping Li, University of California, Los Angeles:
Pomegranate polyphenols
Soy Protein
Ellagitannins