Efficacy of Amicar for Children Having Craniofacial Surgery
|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02229968|
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : September 3, 2014
Last Update Posted : April 17, 2018
The purpose of this study is to determine whether Amicar (ε-aminocaproic acid) is effective in reducing blood loss in children undergoing craniofacial reconstruction surgery.
The investigators hypothesize that Amicar will decrease intraoperative blood loss and decrease the need for perioperative blood product administration in children undergoing craniofacial surgery.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Craniosynostosis||Drug: Amicar (ε-aminocaproic acid) Drug: normal saline||Phase 2|
Craniosynostosis is a condition in which there is premature fusion of one or more of the sutures between the bones of the skull. Premature fusion of sutures in the skull limits the ability of the cranial vault to expand to accommodate the rapidly growing brain in infancy and early childhood and leads to bony deformation. Left uncorrected, craniosynostosis may adversely impact both neurologic and psychosocial development and in some cases, can result in high intracranial pressure and blindness.
Craniofacial (CF) reconstructive surgery is performed in young children with craniosynostosis to improve physical appearance, prevent functional neurologic disturbances, and enhance psychosocial development. Due to the complexities of the surgery as well as the young age and size of the patients, CF reconstruction carries potential life threatening risks and can result in significant morbidity. Reported complications include massive intraoperative hemorrhage, intraoperative cardiac arrest, transfusion-related reactions, venous air embolism, hypotension, coagulopathy, bradycardia, postoperative seizures, surgical site infections, facial swelling with airway compromise, and unplanned postoperative mechanical ventilation. The most severe and most common perioperative issues relate to the rate and extent of blood loss.
Fibrinolysis, which impairs adequate hemostasis, has been shown to occur in children during CF reconstruction. This most certainly contributes to the magnitude of blood loss in these types of operations. Thus, targeting this defect in clot hemostasis with the use of antifibrinolytics is a reasonable therapeutic approach.
Amicar (ε-aminocaproic acid) is a synthetic lysine analog that blocks the lysine binding sites on plasminogen, resulting in antifibrinolytic activity through inhibition of plasmin formation. We have chosen to study Amicar in this clinical context for a number of reasons. First, major hemorrhage continues to be a significant perioperative issue in this cohort. Secondly, Amicar is commonly and safely administered to children undergoing other types of high-risk surgery (i.e., spinal fusion surgery and open heart surgery). In addition, Amicar is inexpensive and easily administered, making it a viable and novel therapeutic option if shown to be effective for this type of surgery.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||22 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator)|
|Official Title:||Efficacy of ε-Aminocaproic Acid (EACA) in Children Undergoing Craniofacial Reconstruction Surgery|
|Study Start Date :||October 2014|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date :||October 2018|
|Estimated Study Completion Date :||December 2018|
Experimental: Amicar (ε-aminocaproic acid)
Treatment group 1: Amicar 100 mg/kg (0.4 mL/kg) IV loading dose, followed by an intraoperative continuous infusion at 40 mg/kg/hr (0.16 mL/kg/hr) to be continued until skin closure.
Drug: Amicar (ε-aminocaproic acid)
Placebo Comparator: normal saline
Treatment group 2: Equal volume of normal saline (placebo control) at the same rate as treatment group 1.
Drug: normal saline
- Intraoperative blood loss [ Time Frame: within the first 72 hours after surgery ]As estimated blood loss is known to be inaccurate in this setting, mean intraoperative blood loss (in mL/kg) will be calculated using a formula previously described in this population.
- Blood donor exposure [ Time Frame: within the first 30 days after surgery ]To establish that intraoperative administration of Amicar decreases perioperative blood donor exposure and need for transfusion following craniofacial reconstructive surgery
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02229968
|United States, District of Columbia|
|Children's National Medical Center|
|Washington, District of Columbia, United States, 20010|
|Principal Investigator:||Srijaya K Reddy, MD, MBA||Children's Research Institute|