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Pilot Study of PEMF Therapy in Treatment of Post-operative Pain Following Total Knee Arthroplasty

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02211534
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : August 7, 2014
Results First Posted : October 27, 2017
Last Update Posted : October 27, 2017
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Regenesis Biomedical, Inc.

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether pulsed electromagnetic energy field (PEMF) therapy is effective in the treatment of persistent pain following total knee arthroplasty (TKA)

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Post-Operative Pain Following Total Knee Arthroplasty Device: Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Device (Provant) Device: Sham Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Device Not Applicable

Detailed Description:
This is a multi-site randomized, double-blinded, parallel-group prospective pilot study of the analgesic effectiveness of twice-daily PEMF therapy in the treatment of persistent post-operative pain following Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA). Following a run-in period of 10 days to collect their baseline pain intensity scores, activity levels and opioid consumption, eligible subjects will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive therapy with an active PEMF device or an identical inactive Sham device. Subjects will self-treat twice daily for 60 days while at home. Subjects will collect electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) data each morning through Day 75. Subjects will be evaluated at the research center for Interim Visits at Day 21, Day 41, Day 61 and Day 75 for assessment of safety, concomitant medications, range of motion, weight, peripheral edema, and quality of life outcomes. At Day 90, Day 150, and Day 240 assessment of pain intensity, opioid consumption, safety, review of concomitant medications and interval history will be performed, with data collected via telephone contact.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 35 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled Pilot Study of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy in the Treatment of Persistent Post-Operative Pain Following Total Knee Arthroplasty
Study Start Date : September 2014
Actual Primary Completion Date : March 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : March 2016

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Device
Pulsed Electromagnetic Field therapy device; self-administered at home twice daily for 30 minutes.
Device: Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Device (Provant)
The PEMF device delivers non-thermal, non-ionizing pulsed electromagnetic energy to the target tissue, using 27.12 megahertz pulses lasting 42 microseconds and delivered 1000 times per second. The system generates an electromagnetic field that is continuously monitored and regulated to ensure consistent dosing. The therapeutic electromagnetic field is delivered by means of an applicator pad that is placed against the treatment site. The active and sham devices will be identical in appearance and all other physical characteristics in order to maintain the masking of the treatment.
Other Name: Provant Therapy System

Sham Comparator: Sham Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Device
Inactive Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy device; self-administered at home twice daily for 30 minutes.
Device: Sham Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Device
The Sham device will be identical in appearance, physical characteristics and operation to the Active device.
Other Name: Sham Provant Therapy System

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in Pain Intensity [ Time Frame: Assessed at Day 60 as compared to Baseline ]
    Percent change from Baseline in Pain Intensity (PI): a validated 11-point Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) with scores (0-10) collected as patient-reported outcomes on an electronic diary (ePRO). A score of 0 represents 'No Pain' while a score of 10 represents "Worst Pain Imaginable".

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Mean Change From Baseline in Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) [ Time Frame: Mean change from Day 0 to Day 75 ]
    Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS): a validated knee-specific instrument that measures the short-term and long-term symptoms and function associated with knee injury. KOOS consists of 5 categories: pain, other symptoms, function in daily living, function in sport and recreation, and knee related quality of life. Patients are asked to answer questions relating to these categories and respond with Never/None/Not at all, Rarely/Monthly/Mild, Sometimes/Moderate/Weekly, Often/Severe/Daily or Always/Extreme/Totally/Constantly. Each response gets a score from 0 to 4. A normalized score (100 indicating no symptoms and 0 indicating extreme symptoms) is calculated for each subscale. The mean change in score from baseline to Day 75 is displayed below.

  2. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) [ Time Frame: Responders at Day 75 (compared to baseline) ]

    Responders: Defined as subjects with a 5-point decrease in Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score.

    BDI is a validated self-reported assessment of current symptoms of depressive disorders, with total scores ranging from 0 to 63. The BDI scale consists of 21 groups of statements with each score/response ranging from 0 to 3. Higher scores represent greater depression. The BDI was conducted at baseline prior to study device treatments and again at Day 61.

  3. Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) [ Time Frame: Day 75 ]
    Responder Analysis at Day 75 (patents stating they are "Improved" to "Much Improved") using the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC). PGIC is a 7-point validated categorical scale of overall change in status since initiation of treatment with the study device. PGIC allows subjects to integrate into one overall evaluation the different aspects of their response to treatment, including pain reduction, improvement in functioning and side effects. Subjects select one of the following response at the end of treatment: Very Much Worse, Much Worse, Minimally Worse, No Change, Minimally Improved, Improved, or Much Improved.

  4. Analgesic Consumption [ Time Frame: Day 56 to Day 60 (compared to baseline) ]
    Consumption of opioid analgesics in the preceding 24 hours will be self-reported by the subject in the ePRO diary on a daily basis during the 10-day run-in period, treatment period and through Day 75. The results below display the difference in opioid analgesic consumption from baseline to Day 56-60. Subject recorded the number of tablets consumed.

  5. Change From Baseline in Range of Motion (ROM) [ Time Frame: Days 0 (Baseline) and Day 75 ]
    The degree of passive (movement of the knee with the aid of study personnel) and active (subject moving the knee) knee flexion and extension tolerated by the subject will be recorded. ROM will be assessed in the sitting position using a goniometer.

  6. Change From Baseline in Peripheral Edema - Maximal Circumference of Calf (cm) [ Time Frame: Day 75 ]
    The maximal circumference of the calf and circumference of the thigh at 10 cm and 15 cm cranial to the superior pole of the patella of the index knee will be measured using a tape measure.

  7. Change in Pain Intensity - Average Pain Intensity [ Time Frame: At Days 75, 90, 150 and 240, as compared to Baseline ]
    Pain Intensity (PI): a validated 11-point Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) with scores (0-10) collected as patient-reported outcomes on an electronic diary (ePRO).

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Subject age is greater or equal to 18 years.
  2. Subject has undergone a total knee replacement for the treatment of osteoarthritis, and has persistent post-operative pain in the index knee for > 3 months and < 36 months following surgery.
  3. Subject has been receiving medication for persistent post-operative knee pain, including opioid or non-opioid analgesic medication that is administered on an "as needed" (prn) basis, and is on a stable analgesic dosing regimen (i.e. the same medications and dosages) for > 30 days prior to the screening visit.
  4. Mean Pain Intensity (calculated as the mean of the daily average pain intensity scores) is ≥3 and < 9 as measured on Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) during the run-in phase.
  5. Subject has completed a minimum of 80% (8 of 10 possible) of the pain intensity assessments during the run-in phase.
  6. Subject is willing and able to wear an activity meter from the screening visit through Day 75.
  7. Subject is able to access an internet browser in the home environment.
  8. Subject is willing and able to give written informed consent and to comply with all parts of the study protocol.
  9. Female Subjects must be post menopausal, surgically sterile, abstinent, or practicing (or agree to practice) an effective method of birth control if they are sexually active for the duration of the study. (Effective methods of birth control include prescription hormonal contraceptives, intrauterine devices, double-barrier methods, and/or male partner sterilization).

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Subject has undergone simultaneous bilateral knee arthroplasty or revision arthroplasty on the index knee.
  2. Subject requires revision surgery prior to Day 75.
  3. Subject has undergone manipulation under anesthesia of the index knee or any local injection into the index knee within 30 days prior to the Screening Visit, or within 6 weeks prior to the Screening Visit for long acting lidocaine injection products.
  4. Subject has received any investigational drug or device within 30 days prior to the Screening Visit or is enrolled in another clinical trial.
  5. Subjects consuming an average of > 100 mg oral Morphine Sulfate equivalents per day during the run-in phase.
  6. Subject has evidence on physical or radiological exam of joint instability or infection involving the index knee.
  7. Passive range of motion demonstrates maximal flexion of the index knee < 90 degrees or maximal extension of the index knee < -10 degrees.
  8. Body Mass Index (BMI) < 19 kg/m2, or > 38 kg/m2.
  9. Subject has a history of any uncontrolled medical illness that in the investigator's judgment places the subject at unacceptable risk for receipt of Provant therapy.
  10. Subject has an ongoing painful condition that in the opinion of the Investigator might have a confounding influence on the safety or effectiveness analysis for this study.
  11. Use of systemic corticosteroids within 2 months of the Screening visit.
  12. Subject anticipates the need for surgery of any type through the Day 75 visit.
  13. Subjects whom, in the judgment of the Investigator, have serious psychosocial co-morbidities.
  14. History of drug or alcohol abuse within one year prior to screening.
  15. Subject has a history of malignancy within the past five years other than successfully treated non-metastatic basal cell or squamous cell carcinomas of the skin in the treatment area and/or localized carcinoma in situ of the cervix.
  16. Subject has an implanted pacemaker, defibrillator, neurostimulator, spinal cord stimulator, bone stimulator, cochlear implant, or other implanted device with an implanted metal lead(s).
  17. Existing or planned pregnancy.
  18. Subject has been previously treated with study device.
  19. Subject is in current litigation related to the index knee or is receiving Worker's Compensation for an injury related to the index knee.
  20. Subject is unwilling or unable to follow study instructions, comply with the treatment regimen, study visits, and ePRO assessments.
  21. Standard deviation around the mean of the average pain intensity scores during the run-in period is >2.0.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02211534

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United States, Alabama
Birmingham, Alabama, United States
United States, Arizona
Phoenix, Arizona, United States, 85018
Phoenix, Arizona, United States, 85023
United States, California
El Cajon, California, United States, 92020
United States, Colorado
Lone Tree, Colorado, United States, 80124
United States, Florida
Bradenton, Florida, United States
Fort Lauderdale, Florida, United States
United States, Nevada
Las Vegas, Nevada, United States, 89128
United States, New York
New York, New York, United States, 10022
United States, North Carolina
Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
United States, South Carolina
Spartanburg, South Carolina, United States, 29303
United States, Utah
Saint George, Utah, United States, 84790
United States, Virginia
Danville, Virginia, United States
United States, Washington
Spokane, Washington, United States, 99218
Sponsors and Collaborators
Regenesis Biomedical, Inc.
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Responsible Party: Regenesis Biomedical, Inc. Identifier: NCT02211534    
Other Study ID Numbers: RBI.2014.002
First Posted: August 7, 2014    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: October 27, 2017
Last Update Posted: October 27, 2017
Last Verified: September 2017
Keywords provided by Regenesis Biomedical, Inc.:
Pulsed Electromagnetic Energy Fields
Total Knee Arthroplasty
Pain Intensity
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Pain, Postoperative
Postoperative Complications
Pathologic Processes
Neurologic Manifestations