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Trial record 3 of 39 for:    "Brain Injury" | "Dopamine"

Dopamine Receptor Imaging to Predict Response to Stimulant Therapy in Chronic TBI

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02148783
Recruitment Status : Terminated (Recruitment was slower than anticipated. Incomplete neuropsychological outcome measures obtained.)
First Posted : May 28, 2014
Last Update Posted : October 4, 2018
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Brief Summary:
Deficits in memory, attention, cognitive, and executive functions are the most common disabilities after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission is implicated in these neural functions and dopaminergic pathways are recognized to be frequently disrupted after TBI. One of the most widely used DAergic drugs is methylphenidate (Ritalin®). Methylphenidate increases synaptic DA levels by binding to presynaptic dopamine transporters (DAT) and blocking re-uptake. PET with methylphenidate challenge to measure tonic DA release provides valuable insight into the molecular basis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and addiction, as well as practical information regarding likely effectiveness of therapy (1). The objectives of this study are to use PET imaging with [11C]-raclopride, a D2/D3 receptor ligand, before and after administering methylphenidate, to measure endogenous DA release in patients who are experiencing problems with cognition, attention and executive function in the chronic stage after TBI. In addition, we will use TMS to test short intracortical inhibition, a gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor A (GABAA) - mediated phenomenon, which is under partial DA control, as a measure of dopaminergic activity on and off methylphenidate.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Traumatic Brain Injury Drug: methylphenidate Drug: Placebo Phase 2

Detailed Description:
  • Males and females (n=30), between the ages of 18 and 55 years in the chronic stage after TBI who experience deficits in neuropsychological function from TBIs incurred 6 months after the injury, will be recruited from military treatment facilities or civilian clinics when presenting for clinical management of TBI or post-concussive symptoms.
  • 1. Study participants will be evaluated using brain MRI, psychometric measures adapted from the TBI Common Data Elements, attention tests and information about details of the injury and experience of post-concussive symptoms will be recorded. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with placebo and with methylphenidate (60 mg by mouth) challenge will be performed to predict a stimulant response.
  • 2. Subjects will be studied with [11C]-raclopride PET in two imaging sessions. One session will be after administration of placebo and the other after methylphenidate, 60 mg by mouth. Both placebo and methylphenidate will be given 60 minutes prior to injection of [11C]-raclopride to allow for peak uptake of methylphenidate in the brain. The binding potential of [11C]-raclopride relative to a non-displaceable reference region (cerebellum), BPND, will be used as a measure of D2/D3 receptor availability. The difference in BPND between methylphenidate and placebo (ΔBPND) is used to measure of tonic DA release.
  • 3. Subjects will then be treated with oral methylphenidate, using a forced titration up to a dose of 30 mg given twice daily for 4 weeks. At that point, the neuropsychologic tests are repeated.
  • Outcome measures: The primary outcome is change in information processing speed during neuropsychologic testing.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 11 participants
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Dopamine Receptor Imaging to Predict Response to Stimulant Therapy in Chronic TBI
Study Start Date : September 2014
Actual Primary Completion Date : August 2018
Actual Study Completion Date : August 2018

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: methylphenidate administration
All participants will receive oral methylphenidate 60 mg before the second TMS study. The participants will receive oral methylphenidate 60 mg before the second PET scan. Subjects will then be treated with oral methylphenidate, using a forced titration. Dose titration will be incremental within 6 days (dose-escalation phase) , starting at 5 mg orally twice daily for 3 days, and 10 mg twice daily for the next 3 days. Then the dose will be increased to 30 mg twice daily starting from day 7 given twice daily for additional 3 weeks.
Drug: methylphenidate
This is an open-labeled 4 week methylphenidate administration, 30 mg twice daily by mouth. Placebo and methylphenidate will also be administered as a single dose before one of the two PET and TMS sessions, in a single blinded manner (the participant will not know whether active drug or placebo was administered). PET imaging with [11C]-raclopride, a D2/D3 receptor ligand will be performed after administration of placebo or oral methylphenidate to measure endogenous DA release in TBI patients. Structural MRI will be performed before methylphenidate administration. TMS after placebo or methylphenidate will be performed to measure intracortical inhibition and dopaminergic activity.
Other Name: Ritalin

Drug: Placebo

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Relationship between tonic dopamine release (measured by displacement of [11C]-raclopride by oral methylphenidate) and change in processing speed between baseline and after methylphenidate treatment. [ Time Frame: Four weeks of treatment with methylphenidate. ]

    Processing speed will be assessed as a composite score of the following measures:

    1. Conners Continuous Performance Test (3rd Edition)
    2. SeaShore Rhythm Test
    3. Flanker Inhibitory Control and Attention Test
    4. Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Relationship between D2/D3 receptor availability in ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex and neuropsychologic deficits. [ Time Frame: Baseline visit ]
    Composite measure of neuropsychologic tests selected from TBI Common Data Elements.

  2. Relationship between tonic dopamine release in the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex with neuropsychologic deficits after TBI. [ Time Frame: Baseline visit ]
    Composite measure of neuropsychologic tests selected from TBI Common Data Elements.

  3. Relationship between D2/D3 receptor availability and functional connectivity of the prefrontal cortex with nodes of the default mode network. [ Time Frame: Baseline visit ]
  4. Relationship between TMS-induced short-interval cortical inhibition of M1 and tonic dopamine release. [ Time Frame: Baseline visit ]
  5. Test motivation and reward on and off methylphenidate in TBI patients. [ Time Frame: Four weeks of treatment with methylphenidate. ]

Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Explore relationship between structural connectivity (measured by Diffusion Tensor Imaging) between the ventral striatum, prefrontal cortex, and ventral tegmental area, and tonic dopamine release in patients with TBI. [ Time Frame: Baseline visit. ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 55 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 18 - 55 years, inclusive
  • A history of having sustained a moderate or severe TBI > 6 months prior to enrollment. Evidence will be any one of the following 3 criteria:

    1. GCS 3 - 12 (GCS obtained in Emergency Room and noted in medical record)
    2. Post-traumatic amnesia > 24 hours
    3. TBI-related abnormality on neuroimaging (either CT or MRI).
  • Persistent post-concussive symptoms, according to the DSM-IV Research Criteria for Post-Concussional Disorder, including:

    1. Difficulty in attention or memory.
    2. One or more of the following symptoms, which started shortly after the trauma and persist for at least three months:

      1. Fatigability
      2. Disordered sleep
      3. Changes in personality
      4. Apathy or lack of spontaneity
    3. Symptoms in criteria (a) and (b) must have their onset after trauma, or there was a significant worsening of pre-existing symptoms after trauma.
    4. Disturbance from these symptoms causes significant impairment of social or occupational functioning and represents a significant decline from previous level of functioning.
  • Ability to read, write, and speak English
  • Ability to give informed consent.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Evidence of penetrating brain injury.
  • Contraindication to methylphenidate therapy:

    1. Known glaucoma (consistently raised intraocular pressure with or without associated optic nerve damage)
    2. Motor tics or a family history of Tourette's syndrome (diagnosed by presence of both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics over the period of a year, with no more than three consecutive tic-free months)
    3. Known hypersensitivity to methylphenidate (hives, difficulty breathing, and swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat).
    4. Known severe anxiety or restlessness which prevents from doing day to day activities.
    5. Known preexisting hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction, or ventricular arrhythmia.
    6. Known preexisting psychosis, bipolar illness.
    7. History of seizures, or interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) on EEG in absence of seizures.
    8. Known peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud's phenomenon.
    9. History of drug dependence or alcoholism.
    10. Concomitant treatment with coumadin anticoagulants, anticonvulsants (e.g., phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone), and tricyclic drugs (e.g., imipramine, clomipramine, desipramine).
    11. Concomitant therapy with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (such as Marplan (isocarboxazid), Nardil (phenelzine), Emsam (selegiline), and Parnate (tranylcypromine))
    12. Concomitant treatment with blood pressure medication (both for high and low blood pressure).
    13. Pregnancy
    14. Breastfeeding
  • History or evidence of disabling pre-existing or co-existing disabling neurologic or psychiatric disorders not related to TBI, such as:

    1. Multiple sclerosis, pre- or co-existing
    2. Stroke (other than stroke at the time of TBI)
    3. Pre-existing disabling developmental disorder
    4. Pre-existing epilepsy
    5. Pre-existing major depressive disorder, aggressive behavior, hostility
    6. Pre-existing schizophrenia
  • Contraindication to MRI scanning

    1. Ferromagnetic metal in the cranial cavity or eye, e.g., aneurysm clip, implanted neural stimulator, cochlear implant, or ocular foreign body
    2. Implanted cardiac pacemaker or auto-defibrillator or pump
    3. Non-removable body piercing
    4. Claustrophobia
    5. Inability to lie supine for two hours
  • Contraindication to TMS, such as metal in the cranial cavity or implanted electronic hardware.
  • Current participation in other interventional clinical trial
  • Non-adherence to use of effective method of contraception for females of able to become pregnant for time from enrollment to the study until 2 weeks after completion of the study drug.
  • Present history of alcohol and substance abuse disorder determined by DSM-IV
  • Body mass index (BMI) > 30

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02148783

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United States, Maryland
National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center.
Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20814
Sponsors and Collaborators
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
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Study Director: Ramon R Diaz-Arrastia, MD, PhD Uniformed Services University / NINDS
Principal Investigator: Eric Wassermann, MD National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)

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Responsible Party: Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Professor of Neurology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Identifier: NCT02148783     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 402693-1
HJF grant ( Other Grant/Funding Number: HJF 306136-12.01-60855 )
First Posted: May 28, 2014    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: October 4, 2018
Last Verified: October 2018
Keywords provided by Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences:
Traumatic brain injury
Attention deficit and memory problems
Dopamine receptor imaging
Motivation and reward
Positron emission tomography
Transcranial magnetic stimulation
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Brain Injuries
Brain Injuries, Traumatic
Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors
Dopamine Agents
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Craniocerebral Trauma
Trauma, Nervous System
Wounds and Injuries
Central Nervous System Stimulants
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors
Membrane Transport Modulators
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Neurotransmitter Agents
Cardiotonic Agents
Autonomic Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Protective Agents