Effects of Message Content on Intention to Quit Smoking
Message framing involves "the presentation of choice alternatives, either in a positive or negative manner" (Huber, Neale, & Northcraft, 1987; p.137). Positively framed health messages contain potential gains of participating/refraining in specific health behaviour. Alternatively, negatively framed health messages contain potential losses of participating/refraining in specific health behaviour (Verlhiac, Chappe, & Meyer, 2011). The primary aim and rationale of this study will be to investigate which type of framing has the greatest effect on intentions to quit smoking in patients with vascular arterial disease. The secondary aim is to investigate what other factors may have an effect on intention to quit and also what factors play a part in a patient's intention to quit smoking.
Peripheral Artery Disease
Behavioral: Gains Framed Message
Behavioral: Loss Framed Message
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Caregiver)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
|Official Title:||Effects of Message Content on Intention to Quit Smoking in Smokers With Peripheral Artery Disease - a Randomised Controlled Trial|
- Intention to quit smoking [ Time Frame: up to 3 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Intention to quit smoking will be assessed by measuring the strength of the individual's intention with a mean score being calculated from the 3 questions asked. This will generate a score between 1 and 7 with a higher score indicating a higher intention to quit smoking. This measure has been used and reviewed in previous research (Francis et al, 2004).
- Stage of Change - smoking cessation [ Time Frame: baseline and 3 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Secondly, the Stage of Change (SOC) of intention will be measured, with higher scores indicating a greater intention to quit smoking. The corresponding scores will identify the SOC (1 =pre-contemplation, 2 = contemplation, 3 = preparation, 4 = action). This measure has been adapted from a previous study which investigated stages of change in relation to smoking cessation (Fathelrahman et al. 2009).
- Nicotine Dependence [ Time Frame: Baseline and 3 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Nicotine dependency will be measured using the standardised Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTNP: Heatherton, Kozlowski, Frecker, & Fagerstrom, 1991)
- Outcome expectancy beliefs [ Time Frame: Baseline and 3 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Expectancy beliefs will be measured using a 10-item questionnaire which has been adapted from the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) assessment tools (Schwarzer, 2007) by making the questions relevant to the specific patient group. The questionnaire is comprised of two sub-scales: positive outcome expectancies (items 1, 3, 4, 6, 9) and negative outcome expectancies (items 2, 5, 7, 8, 10). Each subscale sum scores will range from 5-20.
- Self efficacy [ Time Frame: Baseline and 3 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Self-efficacy to quit smoking will be measured using a 10-item scale which has been previously used in a study investigating self-efficacy influences on the effects of framing in smoking cessation (Riet, Ruiter, Werrij, & de Vries, 2008). Sum scores will range from 10 to 70 with higher scores indicating greater self-efficacy to quit smoking.
- Risk Perception [ Time Frame: baseline and 3 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Risk perception of smoking will be measured using a 5-item questionnaire. The items are similar to that used in a previous study (Clarke and Aish, 2002), however the questions have been adapted to increase the relevance for vascular arterial patients. Sum scores will range from 5-35 with higher scores indicating a greater risk perception in regards to smoking.
- Health locus of control [ Time Frame: baseline and 3 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Health locus of control will be measured using the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale - Form C (MHLC; Wallston, Stein & Smith, 1994).
|Study Start Date:||May 2014|
|Study Completion Date:||August 2014|
|Primary Completion Date:||August 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Gains Framed Message
gains framed visual fridge magnet and information sheet about smoking cessation (benefits of quitting smoking)
|Behavioral: Gains Framed Message|
Experimental: Loss Framed Message
loss framed visual fridge magnet and information sheet about smoking cessation (losses of continued smoking)
|Behavioral: Loss Framed Message|
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02138032
|Forth Valley Royal Hospital|
|Larbert, Falkirk, United Kingdom, FK5 4WR|