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USS Virginia Closed-Loop for Overnight Control in Type 1 Diabetes

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02131766
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 6, 2014
Results First Posted : April 16, 2020
Last Update Posted : April 16, 2020
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Sue Brown, University of Virginia

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to use the USS Virginia Closed-Loop system for overnight insulin delivery in adults with Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM) in an outpatient setting to evaluate the system's ability to significantly improve blood glucose levels. This protocol will test the feasibility of "bedside" closed-loop control - an approach comprised of standard sensor-augmented pump therapy during the day using off-the-shelf devices and overnight closed-loop control using experimental devices in an outpatient setting. The rationale for this study is as follows: we anticipate that closed-loop control may ultimately be adopted by patients with T1DM in a selective manner. Patient may choose to start using these systems for overnight control only, e.g. to alleviate the well documented fear of hypoglycemia while asleep. To test this paradigm of "bedside" closed-loop control, subjects will be studied with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)-augmented usual pump therapy during the day followed by overnight use of USS Virginia Closed Loop Control.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Diabetes Mellitus Device: DiAs Other: Sensor Augmented Pump Therapy Not Applicable

Detailed Description:
The subject will participate in both the Experimental and the Control Admissions. The order of the two admissions will be randomized. During the Control Admission at home, the subject will use the study insulin pump along with a continuous glucose monitor receiver. During the Experimental Admission, the subject will be the research house/hotel where the subject will be in control of the DiAs. Participation in this study will require 5 study visits over 11-14 weeks.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 33 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Unified Safety System (USS) Virginia Closed-Loop Versus Sensor Augmented Pump Therapy for Overnight Control in Type 1 Diabetes
Study Start Date : June 2014
Actual Primary Completion Date : March 2015
Actual Study Completion Date : March 2015

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Diabetes Type 1

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: USS Virginia Closed Loop Control

The subject will be admitted to the research house/hotel and will be discharged after 5 nights. The subject will be trained on DiAs and on how to respond to the system's alerts. The DiAs will be initiated by 11:00 PM and will be discontinued before breakfast. The staff will be monitoring the subject remotely. The subject will need to remain within a 30 miles of the research house/hotel during the day and return by 6:00 PM.

A limited number of UVA and UPadova subjects will be asked to wear the DiAs at home for 5 days at the conclusion of research house admission.

Device: DiAs
DiAs is the central component of our system. It is a standard cell phone running on an Android operating system. The cell phone has been changed to prevent from (1) using it as a phone or browser, (2) changing the volume (3) accidentally shutting it off. The cell phone runs an algorithm and is connected to work with the insulin pump and continuous glucose monitor to help keep the blood sugar in a desired range and help avoid hypoglycemia during the night.

Placebo Comparator: Sensor Augmented Pump Therapy
The subject will wear the continuous glucose monitor with the study insulin pump for a full 7 day period (approximately 7 consecutive 24 hour periods). The subject will follow their usual regimen. The subject will be asked to use the bolus calculator function on your insulin pump and enter the carbohydrate information that you eat during the week.
Other: Sensor Augmented Pump Therapy
Insulin pump plus CGM.
Other Name: SAP

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. USS Virginia Time Within Target [ Time Frame: 40 hours ]
    Assess the effect size of USS Virginia in increasing time within target (70-180 mg/dL) over a 24-hour period with closed-loop control overnight (23:00 to 07:00) as compared to sensor-augmented pump alone.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Overnight Target Range [ Time Frame: 40 hours ]
    Assess time spent within target range of 80-140 mg/dl overnight with USS Virginia Closed Loop compared to sensor-augmented pump therapy alone

  2. Decreased Overnight Hypoglycemia [ Time Frame: 40 hours ]
    Assess the effect of USS Virginia Closed Loop System to decrease hypoglycemia overnight compared to sensor-augmented pump therapy alone

  3. Morning Glucose Levels [ Time Frame: 40 hours ]
    Assess the distribution of wake-up glucose levels at 07:00 achieved by USS Virginia Closed Loop vs. to sensor-augmented pump therapy alone;

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   21 Years to 65 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Clinical diagnosis, based on investigator assessment, of type 1 diabetes for at least one year and using insulin for at least 1 year and an insulin pump for at least 6 months

    - Criteria for documented hyperglycemia (at least 1 must be met): i. Fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL ii. Two-hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) glucose ≥200 mg/dL iii. HbA1c ≥6.5% documented iv. Random glucose ≥200 mg/dL with symptoms v. No data at diagnosis is available but the participant has a convincing history of hyperglycemia consistent with diabetes.

    - Criteria for requiring insulin at diagnosis (1 must be met): i. Participant required insulin at diagnosis and continually thereafter ii. Participant did not start insulin at diagnosis but upon investigator review likely needed insulin (significant hyperglycemia that did not respond to oral agents) and did require insulin eventually and used continually iii. Participant did not start insulin at diagnosis but continued to be hyperglycemic, had positive islet cell antibodies - consistent with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and did require insulin eventually and used continually

  2. Age ≥21 to <65 years
  3. HbA1c <10.0%
  4. For females, not currently known to be pregnant If female and sexually active, must agree to use a form of contraception to prevent pregnancy while a participant in the study. A negative urine pregnancy test will be required for all premenopausal women who are not surgically sterile. Subjects who become pregnant will be discontinued from the study.
  5. Demonstration of proper mental status and cognition for the study
  6. Currently using insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio to calculate meal bolus sizes
  7. Ability to access the Internet and upload CGM data via the DexCom company software during the data collection period.
  8. Willingness to remain within approximately 30 miles radius of study site during the day time hours of Visit 4.
  9. An understanding of and willingness to follow the protocol and sign the informed consent

Additional Inclusion Criteria for UVA subjects only who participate in the 5 days at-home portion

  • Availability of a significant other or family member committed to participating in all training activities, knowledgeable at all times of the participant's location, and being present and available to provide assistance when system is being used at night
  • Commitment to maintaining uninterrupted availability via cell phone and avoiding any overnight travel for the duration of the period of time using the closed-loop system at home.
  • Access to internet and cell phone service at home

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Admission for diabetic ketoacidosis in the 12 months prior to enrollment
  2. Severe hypoglycemia resulting in seizure or loss of consciousness in the 12 months prior to enrollment
  3. History of a seizure disorder (except hypoglycemic seizure), unless written clearance is received from a neurologist
  4. Coronary artery disease or heart failure, unless written clearance is received from a cardiologist
  5. Cystic fibrosis
  6. A known medical condition that in the judgment of the investigator might interfere with the completion of the protocol such as the following examples:

    • Inpatient psychiatric treatment in the past 6 months
    • Presence of a known adrenal disorder
    • Abnormal liver function test results (Transaminase >2 times the upper limit of normal); testing required for subjects taking medications known to affect liver function or with diseases known to affect liver function
    • Abnormal renal function test results (calculated GFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2); testing required for subjects with diabetes duration of greater than 5 years post onset of puberty
    • Active gastroparesis
    • If on antihypertensive, thyroid, anti-depressant or lipid lowering medication, lack of stability on the medication for the past 2 months prior to enrollment in the study
    • Uncontrolled thyroid disease (TSH undetectable or >10 mlU/L); testing required within three months prior to admission for subjects with a goiter, positive antibodies, or who are on thyroid hormone replacement, and within one year otherwise
    • Abuse of alcohol or recreational drugs
    • Infectious process not anticipated to resolve prior to study procedures (e.g. meningitis, pneumonia, osteomyelitis).
    • Uncontrolled arterial hypertension (Resting diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg and/or systolic blood pressure >160 mmHg).
    • Oral steroids
    • Uncontrolled microvascular complications such as current active proliferative diabetic retinopathy defined as proliferative retinopathy requiring treatment (e.g. laser therapy) in the past 12 months.
  7. A recent injury to body or limb, muscular disorder, use of any medication, any carcinogenic disease, or other significant medical disorder if that injury, medication or disease in the judgment of the investigator will affect the completion of the protocol
  8. Basal Rates <0.01 units/hour.
  9. Current use of the following drugs and supplements:

    • Acetaminophen
    • Any medication being taken to lower blood glucose, such as Pramlintide, Metformin, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 Analogs such as Liraglutide, and nutraceuticals intended to lower blood glucose
    • Beta blockers
    • Any other medication that the investigator believes is a contraindication to the subject's participation

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02131766

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United States, Minnesota
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, Minnesota, United States, 55905
United States, New York
Mount Sinai Hospital
New York, New York, United States, 10029-6574
United States, Virginia
University of Virginia Center for Diabetes Technology
Charlottesville, Virginia, United States, 22903
University of Padova
Padova, Italy, 35131
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Virginia
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
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Principal Investigator: Sue Brown, MD University of Virginia
Principal Investigator: Carol Levy, MD, CDE MOUNT SINAI HOSPITAL
Principal Investigator: Yogish C. Kudva, MBBS, MD Mayo Clinic
Principal Investigator: Claudio Cobelli, PhD University of Padova
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Responsible Party: Sue Brown, Principal Investigator, University of Virginia Identifier: NCT02131766    
Obsolete Identifiers: NCT02008188
Other Study ID Numbers: 17351
1DP3DK101055-01 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: May 6, 2014    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: April 16, 2020
Last Update Posted: April 16, 2020
Last Verified: March 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Undecided
Plan Description: Undetermined
Keywords provided by Sue Brown, University of Virginia:
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Artificial Pancreas Project (APP)
Diabetes Assistant (DiAs)
Closed-Loop Control (CLC)
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Diabetes Mellitus
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases