Nonmyeloablative Peripheral Blood Mobilized Hematopoietic Precursor Cell Transplantation for Sickle Cell Disease and Beta-thalassemia in People With Higher Risk of Transplant Failure
- Some sickle cell disease or beta-thalassemia can be cured with transplant. Researchers want to test a variation of transplant that uses low dose radiation and a combination of immunosuppressive drugs. They want to know if it helps a body to better accept donor stem cells.
- To see if low dose radiation (300 rads), oral cyclophosphamide, pentostatin, and sirolimus help a body to better accept donor stem cells.
- People 16 and older with beta-thalassemia or sickle cell disease that can be cured with transplant, and their donors.
- Participants and donors will be screened with medical history, physical exam, blood test, tissue and blood typing, and bone marrow sampling. They will visit a social worker.
- may receive an intravenous (IV) tube in their groin vein.
- will receive a drug injection daily for 5 or 6 days to move the blood stem cells from the bone marrow into general blood circulation.
- will undergo apheresis: an IV is put into a vein in each arm. Blood is taken from one arm, a machine removes the white blood cells that contain blood stem cells, and the rest is returned through the other arm.
- may undergo red cell exchange procedure.
- will remain in the hospital for about 30 days.
- will receive a large IV line that can stay in their body from transplant through recovery.
- will receive a dose of radiation, and transplant related drugs by mouth or IV.
- will receive blood stem cells over 8 hours by IV.
- will take neuropsychological tests and may complete questionnaires throughout the transplant process.
- must stay near NIH for 4 months. They will visit the outpatient clinic weekly.
- will have 5 follow-up visits for 3 years after transplant, then annually.
|Sickle Cell Disease Thalassemia Stem Cell Transplantation Graft vs Host Disease||Drug: Alemtuzumab Drug: Sirolimus Drug: Cyclophosphamide Drug: Pentostatin Drug: Radiotherapy||Phase 1 Phase 2|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Nonmyeloablative Peripheral Blood Mobilized Hematopoietic Precursor Cell Transplantation For Sickle Cell Disease and Beta-Thalassemia in Individuals With Higher Risk of Transplant Failure|
- Determine regimen failure rate, defined as graft rejection, severe GVHD (acute GVHD grade 3 or higher or extensive chronic GVHD), or prolonged donor red cell aplasia ( greater than 2 years post -HSCT) [ Time Frame: 7 years ]
- Examine the level of chimerism required to maintain both graft survival as well as hematologic normalcy using a regimen containing pentostatin, cyclophosphamide, alemtuzumab, and low total body irradiation. [ Time Frame: 7 years ]
|Study Start Date:||March 13, 2014|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||August 31, 2021|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||August 31, 2021 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Our ongoing nonmyeloablative allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplant protocol (03-H-0170) for patients with severe sickle cell disease (SCD) and B-thalassemia from HLA-matched family donors has excellent results thus far. Our long term leukocyte engraftment rate is 85-90% with the same disease-free survival. None of the engrafted patients had acute sickle-related events, significant toxicity associated with the conditioning regimen, or any evidence of graft versus host disease (GVHD).
While these results rival the transplant outcomes from low risk transplant patients with B-thalassemia, there are areas for improvement. The first is the 10-15% graft rejection rate, where a majority of these individuals were male donor and female recipient pairs. Another limitation is the significant delay in donor red cell engraftment in one recipient who had pre-existing allo-antibody to donor red cells from previous transfusions. Also we have excluded another group of individuals with preformed antibodies, recipients having major ABO incompatibility to the donors.
To overcome these limitations (and reduce the transplant failure rate) in this new protocol, we will continue our nonmyeloablative approach in the patients with SCD and B-thalassemia with HLA-matched family donors, but using an increased intensity regimen in a subset considered at high risk for transplant failure. This modified regimen consists of pentostatin and oral cyclophosphamide, which we hypothesize will reduce both the T cells that mediate leukocyte rejection and the B/plasma cells that produce anti-donor erythrocyte antibodies. The main transplant backbone will remain as alemtuzumab, low dose total body irradiation of 300 cGy, and sirolimus; the transplant graft will remain as unmanipulated G-CSF mobilized, T-cell replete, PBSC product for hematopoietic and lymphoid reconstitution.
The primary endpoint of this study is the percentage/number of patients who have sustained donor type hemoglobin at 1 year post transplant for male donors female recipients. The primary endpoint for those with pre-existing antibodies is the presence of donor red cells with reticulocytes greater than or equal to30 k/uL at 2 years post-transplant. Other endpoints include the toxicity of the pentostatin-cyclophosphamide regimen, the degree of donor-host chimerism necessary for long-term graft survival and disease amelioration, incidence of acute and chronic GVHD, incidence of graft rejection, transplant-related morbidity, as well as disease-free and overall survival. Since SCD and B-thalassemia are non-malignant disorders of red cells, severe GVHD, lack of donor erythrocyte (prolonged donor red cell aplasia), or graft rejection is collectively considered transplant failure.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02105766
|Contact: Mary E. Link, R.N.||(301) firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Contact: Matthew M Hsieh, M.D.||(301) email@example.com|
|United States, Maryland|
|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike||Recruiting|
|Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892|
|Contact: For more information at the NIH Clinical Center contact Patient Recruitment and Public Liaison Office (PRPL) 800-411-1222 ext TTY8664111010 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Principal Investigator:||Matthew M Hsieh, M.D.||National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)|