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The Summer Camp Study 2: Blood Glucose Control With a Bi-Hormonal Endocrine Pancreas

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02105324
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : April 7, 2014
Results First Posted : October 20, 2017
Last Update Posted : October 20, 2017
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):

Study Description
Brief Summary:
This study will test the hypothesis that a wearable automated bionic pancreas system that automatically delivers both insulin and glucagon can improve glycemic control vs. usual care for young people with type 1 diabetes ages 6-11 years old in a diabetes camp environment.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment
Type 1 Diabetes Device: Bionic Pancreas Other: Usual Care

Study Design

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 19 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: The Summer Camp Study 2: Outpatient Automated Blood Glucose Control With a Bi-Hormonal Bionic Endocrine Pancreas in a Pediatric Population Ages 6-11 at the Clara Barton Diabetes Camps
Study Start Date : June 2014
Primary Completion Date : August 2014
Study Completion Date : August 2014

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Blood Sugar
U.S. FDA Resources

Arms and Interventions

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Bionic Pancreas
Bionic Pancreas diabetes management, a wearable bionic pancreas system that automatically delivers insulin and glucagon using a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device, for 5 days.
Device: Bionic Pancreas
Automated blood glucose control via a closed-loop bionic pancreas device.
Other Name: Boston University Bionic Pancreas
Experimental: Usual Care
Usual Care diabetes management in a diabetes camp environment including a nurse or nursing student assigned to each cabin and review and adjustment of the insulin regimen daily by a physician or nurse practitioner, all participants using the participant's own insulin pump and a continuous glucose monitor if they use one as part of their usual care, for 5 days.
Other: Usual Care
As a comparator control, usual diabetes camp care with the participant's own insulin pump.


Outcome Measures

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Mean Continuous Glucose Monitoring Glucose (CGMG) Values During Days 2 to 5 [ Time Frame: Days 2 to 5 of each period ]
    Glucose reading were taken every 5 minutes by the CGM. The CGM glucose results during Days 2 through 5 were averaged.

  2. Percentage of Time Spent With CGMG Concentration < 60 mg/dL During Days 2 to 5 [ Time Frame: Days 2 to 5 of each period ]
    Glucose reading were taken every 5 minutes by the CGM. The percentage of time that the glucose concentration was less than 60 mg/dL [3.3 millimoles/liter (mmol/L)] during Days 2 through 5 was calculated.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Mean CGMG Values [ Time Frame: Day 1 and Days 1-5 in each period ]
    Glucose reading were taken every 5 minutes by the CGM. The glucose results for each time frame were averaged.

  2. Percentage of Time With CGMG Concentration by Ranges During Day 1 [ Time Frame: Day 1 of each period ]
    Glucose readings were taken every 5 minutes by the CGM. The percentage of time that the glucose concentration was less than the following ranges were calculated: < 50 mg/dL(2.8 mmol/L), < 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L), 70-180 mg/dL (3.9 to 10.0 mmol/L), > 180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L).

  3. Percentage of Time With CGMG Concentration by Ranges During Days 1 to 5 [ Time Frame: Days 1 to 5 of each period ]
    Glucose readings were taken every 5 minutes by the CGM. The percentage of time that the glucose concentration was less than the following ranges were calculated: < 50 mg/dl (2.8 mmol/L), < 70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/L), 70-180 mg/dl (3.9 to 10.0 mmol/L), > 180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L).

  4. Percentage of Time With CGMG Concentration by Ranges During Days 2 to 5 [ Time Frame: Days 2 to 5 of each period ]
    Glucose readings were taken every 5 minutes by the CGM. The percentage of time that the glucose concentration was less than the following ranges were calculated: < 50 mg/dl (2.8 mmol/L), < 70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/L), 70-180 mg/dl (3.9 to 10.0 mmol/L), > 180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L).

  5. Percentage of Participants With Mean CGMG Glucose <154 mg/dL [ Time Frame: Day 1, Days 1-5, and Days 2-5 of each period ]
    Glucose reading were taken every 5 minutes by the CGM. The glucose readings were averaged. 154 mg/dL was the estimated average glucose corresponding to a Hemoglobin A1C of 7.0%.

  6. Percentage of Participants With Mean CGMG Glucose <169 mg/dL [ Time Frame: Day 1, Days 1-5, and Days 2-5 of each period ]
    Glucose reading were taken every 5 minutes by the CGM. The glucose readings were averaged. 169 mg/dL was the estimated average glucose corresponding to a Hemoglobin A1C of 7.5%.

  7. Percentage of Participants With Mean CGMG Glucose <183 mg/dL [ Time Frame: Day 1, Days 1-5, and Days 2-5 of each period ]
    Glucose reading were taken every 5 minutes by the CGM. The glucose readings were averaged. 183 mg/dL was the estimated average glucose corresponding to a Hemoglobin A1C of 8.0%.

  8. Number of CGMG Reported Hypoglycemic Events (< 70 mg/dL, < 60 mg/dL, <50 mg/dL) [ Time Frame: Days 1-5 ]
    A series of hypoglycemic measurements is defined as a single event until there is a break of ≥ 30 minutes between measurements below the defined thresholds of < 70, < 60, and <50 mg/dL.

  9. Mean Plasma Glucose Values [ Time Frame: Day 1, Days 1 to 5, and Days 2 to 5 of each period ]
    Fingerstick plasma glucose measurements were obtained before meals, at bedtime, at midnight, and at about 3:45 AM (six scheduled measurements). The plasma glucose readings were averaged. The plasma glucose results on Day 1, Days 1 to 5 and Days 2 to 5 were averaged.

  10. Percentage of Time With Plasma Glucose Values by Ranges on Day 1 [ Time Frame: Day 1 of each period ]
    Fingerstick plasma glucose measurements were obtained before meals, at bedtime, at midnight, and at about 3:45 AM (six scheduled measurements). The percentage of time that the plasma glucose concentration was less than the following ranges were calculated: < 70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/L), < 60 mg/dL (3.3 mmol/L), < 50 mg/dl (2.8 mmol/L).

  11. Percentage of Time With Plasma Glucose Values by Ranges on Days 1 to 5 [ Time Frame: Days 1 to 5 of each period ]
    Fingerstick plasma glucose measurements were obtained before meals, at bedtime, at midnight, and at about 3:45 AM (six scheduled measurements). The percentage of time that the plasma glucose concentration was less than the following ranges were calculated: < 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L), < 60 mg/dL (3.3 mmol/L), < 50 mg/dL (2.8 mmol/L).

  12. Percentage of Time With Plasma Glucose Values by Ranges on Days 2 to 5 [ Time Frame: Days 2 to 5 of each period ]
    Fingerstick plasma glucose measurements were obtained before meals, at bedtime, at midnight, and at about 3:45 AM (six scheduled measurements). The percentage of time that the plasma glucose concentration was less than the following ranges were calculated: < 70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/L), < 60 mg/dL (3.3 mmol/L), < 50 mg/dl (2.8 mmol/L).

  13. Percentage of Participants With Mean Plasma Glucose <154 mg/dL [ Time Frame: Day 1, Days 1 to 5, and Days 2 to 5 of each period ]
    Fingerstick plasma glucose measurements were obtained before meals, at bedtime, at midnight, and at about 3:45 AM (six scheduled measurements). The plasma glucose readings were averaged. 154 mg/dL was the estimated average glucose corresponding to a Hemoglobin A1C of 7.0%.

  14. Percentage of Participants With Mean Plasma Glucose <169 mg/dL [ Time Frame: Day 1, Days 1 to 5, and Days 2 to 5 of each period ]
    Fingerstick plasma glucose measurements were obtained before meals, at bedtime, at midnight, and at about 3:45 AM (six scheduled measurements). The plasma glucose readings were averaged. 169 mg/dL was the estimated average glucose corresponding to a Hemoglobin A1C of 7.5%.

  15. Percentage of Participants With Mean Plasma Glucose <183 mg/dL [ Time Frame: Day 1, Days 1 to 5, and Days 2 to 5 of each period ]
    Fingerstick plasma glucose measurements were obtained before meals, at bedtime, at midnight, and at about 3:45 AM (six scheduled measurements). The plasma glucose readings were averaged. 183 mg/dL was the estimated average glucose corresponding to a Hemoglobin A1C of 8.0%.

  16. Number of Plasma Glucose Reported Hypoglycemic Events (< 70 mg/dL, < 60 mg/dL, <50 mg/dL) [ Time Frame: Days 1-5 ]
    A series of hypoglycemic measurements is defined as a single event until there is a break of ≥ 30 minutes between measurements below the defined thresholds of < 70, < 60, and <50 mg/dL.

  17. Percentage of Days That CGM Data Was Used by Participants as Part of Their Usual Care [ Time Frame: Day 1, Days 1-5, and Days 2-5 of the Usual Care Period ]
    The percentage of days during the Usual Care period that participants used CGM data as part of their diabetes management.

  18. Number of Carbohydrate Interventions for Hypoglycemia When Plasma Glucose <70 mg/dL [ Time Frame: Day 1, Days 1-5, and Days 2-5 of each period ]
    Fingerstick plasma glucose measurements were obtained before meals, at bedtime, at midnight, and at about 3:45 AM (six scheduled measurements). Participants were given 15 grams (g) of simple carbohydrates if their plasma glucose concentration dropped below 4.4 mmol/L. These simple carbohydrates were counted as interventions for study outcomes if the plasma glucose concentration was less than 3.9 mmol/L. A second intervention of 15 g of carbohydrate was given if a repeat measurement in 15-20 min was less than 3.9 mmol/L. The total number of carbohydrate interventions are reported.

  19. Grams of Carbohydrate Taken for Hypoglycemia When Plasma Glucose <70 mg/dL [ Time Frame: Day 1, Days 1-5, and Days 2-5 of each period ]
    Fingerstick plasma glucose measurements were obtained before meals, at bedtime, at midnight, and at about 3:45 AM (six scheduled measurements). Participants were given 15 grams (g) of simple carbohydrates if their plasma glucose concentration dropped below 4.4 mmol/L. These simple carbohydrates were counted as interventions for study outcomes if the plasma glucose concentration was less than 3.9 mmol/L. A second intervention of 15 g of carbohydrate was given if a repeat measurement in 15-20 min was less than 3.9 mmol/L.

  20. Insulin Total Daily Dose [ Time Frame: 11 days ]
    Insulin total daily dose is reported in units per kilogram per day (U/kg/day).

  21. Glucagon Total Daily Dose Levels in the Bionic Pancreas Arm [ Time Frame: Day 1, Days 1-5, and Days 2-5 of each period ]
    Glucagon dose level is reported in micrograms per kilogram of body mass per day (µg/kg/day).

  22. Daily Basal Insulin Dose in the Bionic Pancreas Period [ Time Frame: Day 1 through Day 5 ]
    The bionic pancreas automatically adapted insulin dosing to each individual's needs. When CGM data were not available (because of sensor failure or during the warm-up time after sensor replacement), the bionic pancreas automatically delivered a dose of basal insulin based on the mean basal dosing it had calculated at that time on previous days. Daily basal insulin dose is reported in units per kilogram (kg) per day (U/kg).

  23. Daily Bolus Insulin Dose in the Bionic Pancreas Period [ Time Frame: Day 1 through Day 5 ]
    The first time the bionic pancreas was used in each participant, a partial meal-priming bolus based on the participant's body mass (0.05 units/kg) was delivered. After the first use, the size of the meal-priming bolus was adapted by the bionic pancreas to 75% of the 4-hour prandial insulin used for that meal type and size. Daily bolus insulin dose is reported in units per kilogram (kg) per day (U/kg).

  24. Carbohydrate Intake [ Time Frame: Day 1, Days 1-5 and Days 2-5 ]
    Carbohydrate intake included meals, snacks and unscheduled carbohydrates administered when a participant's blood glucose was <80 mg/dl (or for symptoms at any glucose level). Carbohydrate intake per day was averaged and is reported in grams (g) per kilogram (kg) per day (g/kg/day).

  25. Number of Unscheduled Infusion Set Changes [ Time Frame: Day 1 ]
    Infusion sets for administering insulin and glucagon were placed under the skin the in the abdomen, buttocks, arms, or legs. Infusion set changes due to pain, infusion set falling out or infusion set failure are reported. Camp policy was to suspect failure of the infusion set whenever ketonemia occurred, so failures may not have actually been set failures, but rather failure to deliver enough insulin.

  26. Number of Unscheduled Infusion Set Changes [ Time Frame: Days 1-5 ]
    Infusion sets for administering insulin and glucagon were placed under the skin the in the abdomen, buttocks, arms, or legs. Infusion set changes due to pain, infusion set falling out or infusion set failure are reported. Camp policy was to suspect failure of the infusion set whenever ketonemia occurred, so failures may not have actually been set failures, but rather failure to deliver enough insulin.

  27. Number of Unscheduled Infusion Set Changes [ Time Frame: Days 2-5 ]
    Infusion sets for administering insulin and glucagon were placed under the skin the in the abdomen, buttocks, arms, or legs. Infusion set changes due to pain, infusion set falling out or infusion set failure are reported. Camp policy was to suspect failure of the infusion set whenever ketonemia occurred, so failures may not have actually been set failures, but rather failure to deliver enough insulin.

  28. Number of Bionic Pancreas Local Infusion Site Reactions [ Time Frame: Day 1, Days 1-5 and Days 2-5 ]
    Local infusion site reactions are defined as pain at the infusion site of the Bionic Pancreas. Itching and redness may have also been present.

  29. Mean Nausea Index Score Using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) [ Time Frame: Day 1, Days 1-5, and Days 2-5 in each period ]
    Participants rated their nausea using a 0 to 10 centimeter (cm) VAS where 0=least severe nausea to 10=most severe nausea. The average nausea index scores from Day 1 to Day 5 were calculated

  30. Number of Severe Hypoglycemic Events [ Time Frame: Day 1, Days 1-5 and Days 2-5 ]
    A severe hypoglycemic event is an event where the participant is unable to self-treat and requires the assistance of another person.

  31. Percentage of Time Participants Were Not Under Bionic Pancreas Control During the Bionic Pancreas Period [ Time Frame: 5 days ]
    Percentage of time that the Bionic pancreas was not functioning properly due to loss of wireless connectivity.

  32. Percentage of Time Without CGM Monitoring Data [ Time Frame: 5 days ]
    Percentage of time without CGM monitoring data is the time when the participant's CGM device lost its CGM signal.

  33. Change From Baseline in Body Weight [ Time Frame: 5 days ]
    The change in body weight collected at Day 5 of each period relative to Baseline. A negative change from Baseline indicates a reduction in body weight and a positive change from Baseline indicates an increase in body weight.

  34. Reliability Index [ Time Frame: Day 1, Days 1-5, and Days 2-5 in each period ]
    Reliability index was calculated as the percentage of time values were actually recorded by CGM.

  35. List of Technical Faults Associated With the Bionic Pancreas Including Cause and Resolution [ Time Frame: 5 days ]
  36. Number of Unscheduled CGM Sensor Changes [ Time Frame: 5 days ]
    The number of time a CGM sensor was replaced due to falling out or failing to report a glucose value.

  37. Percentage of Participants Using a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Agonist During the Usual Care Period [ Time Frame: 5 days ]
    The percentage of participants who used a GLP-1 agonist to manage their diabetes during the Usual Care period.

  38. Percentage of Participants Using Pramlintide During the Usual Care Period [ Time Frame: 5 days ]
    The percentage of participants who used pramlintide to manage their diabetes during the Usual Care period.


Eligibility Criteria

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   6 Years to 11 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria

  • Age 6-11 years with type 1 diabetes for at least one year
  • Diabetes managed using an insulin infusion pump for ≥ three months
  • Willing to wear two infusion sets and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensor and change sets frequently (at least one new glucagon infusion set daily)
  • Otherwise healthy (mild chronic disease such as asthma will be allowed if well controlled that do not require medications that result in exclusion)

Exclusion Criteria

  • Unable to provide informed consent, informed assent or parental consent
  • Unable to comply with study procedures
  • Current participation in another diabetes-related clinical trial that, in the judgment of the principal investigator, will compromise the results of this study or the safety of the subject
  • End stage renal disease on dialysis (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis)
  • Pregnancy (positive urine human chorionic gonadotropin [HCG])
  • History of liver disease that is expected to interfere with the anti-hypoglycemia action of glucagon (e.g. liver failure or cirrhosis). Other liver disease (i.e. active hepatitis, steatosis, active biliary disease, any tumor of the liver, hemochromatosis, glycogen storage disease) may exclude the subject if it causes significant compromise to liver function or may do so in an unpredictable fashion
  • Personal history of cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, or other pancreatic disease, including pancreatic tumor or insulinoma
  • History of prolonged QT or arrhythmia, congenital heart disease or current known cardiac disease
  • Acute illness (other than non-vomiting viral illness) or exacerbation of chronic illness other than type 1 diabetes (T1D) at the time of the study
  • Seizure disorder, history of any seizure within the last two years, or ongoing treatment with anticonvulsants
  • Untreated or inadequately treated mental illness (indicators would include symptoms such as psychosis, hallucinations, mania, and any psychiatric hospitalization in the last year), or treatment with second generation anti-psychotic medications, which are known to affect glucose regulation.
  • Electrically powered implants (e.g. cochlear implants, neurostimulators) that might be susceptible to radio-frequency (RF) interference
  • Use of oral (e.g. thiazolidinediones, biguanides, sulfonylureas, glitinides, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, sodium-glucose linked transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors) anti-diabetic medications
  • History of adverse reaction to glucagon (including allergy) besides nausea and vomiting.
  • Unwilling or unable to completely avoid acetaminophen during the comparator and bionic pancreas arms of the study
  • History of eating disorder such as anorexia, bulimia, or diabulemia or omission of insulin to manipulate weight
  • History of intentional, inappropriate administration of insulin leading to severe hypoglycemia requiring treatment
  • Any factors that, in the opinion of the principal investigator, would interfere with the safe completion of the study procedures
Contacts and Locations

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02105324


Locations
United States, Massachusetts
Massachusetts General Hospital
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02114
Sponsors and Collaborators
Massachusetts General Hospital
Boston University
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Steven J Russell, MD PhD Massachusetts General Hospital
More Information

Additional Information:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Steven J. Russell, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02105324     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 2014P000630
First Posted: April 7, 2014    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: October 20, 2017
Last Update Posted: October 20, 2017
Last Verified: October 2017

Keywords provided by Steven J. Russell, MD, PhD, Massachusetts General Hospital:
summer camp
bionic pancreas
artificial pancreas
insulin
glucagon
continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)
outpatient
insulin pump
pediatrics
children
camp

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Diabetes Mellitus
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Autoimmune Diseases
Immune System Diseases
Insulin, Globin Zinc
Insulin
Pancrelipase
Pancreatin
Hypoglycemic Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Gastrointestinal Agents