Ketamine Infusion for Social Anxiety Disorder
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02083926|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : March 11, 2014
Results First Posted : March 18, 2021
Last Update Posted : March 18, 2021
- Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is common and causes significant impairment.
- First-line treatments for Social Anxiety Disorder are only partially effective. Many SAD patients experience little or inadequate symptom relief with available treatments.
- Ketamine is a potent NMDA receptor antagonist. Ketamine represents an agent with a potentially novel mechanism of action for the treatment of anxiety disorders.
- Ketamine has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders closely related to Social Anxiety Disorder including Major Depression, Bipolar Depression and possibly Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.
Ketamine represents the possibility to provide rapid symptom relief to patients with SAD and may provide the mechanism for future drug development to treat SAD more rapidly and effectively.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Social Anxiety Disorder||Drug: Ketamine Other: Saline||Early Phase 1|
Roughly one-third to one-half of patients with generalized SAD do not experience significant clinical benefit from current evidence-based treatment for SAD such as pharmacotherapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) or venlafaxine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Failure of anxiety relief in patients with SAD is a source of substantial morbidity, distress, and decreases in quality of life. Novel pharmacological treatments are needed to improve patient outcomes with SAD.
Converging lines of evidence from neuroimaging and pharmacological studies support the importance of glutamate abnormalities in the pathogenesis of SAD. In a Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) study, an elevated glutamate to creatinine ratio was found in the anterior cingulate cortex of SAD patients when compared to healthy controls. Elevated thalamic glutamine levels have been demonstrated in patients with SAD. Pre-clinical rodent studies have also established a strong link between glutamate regulation and anxiety.
Ketamine is a potent antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a major type of glutamate receptor in the brain. Ketamine is routinely used for anesthetic induction because of its dissociative properties. However in research studies, ketamine is effective treatment in reducing symptoms in depressive and possibly anxiety disorders. In multiple controlled clinical studies, ketamine has produced a rapid antidepressant effect in unipolar and bipolar depression. Ketamine's anti-depressant effects peak 1-3 days following infusion. Ketamine's antidepressant effect is observed long after ketamine has been metabolized and excreted by the body and after ketamine's sedative and dissociative effects have dissipated.
The results of several clinical studies suggest that ketamine may also have significant anxiolytic effects. Patients with major depressive disorder given a single ketamine infusion have shown strong and significant reductions in comorbid anxiety symptoms. A trial including 11 depressed patients demonstrated a significant reduction in anxiety symptoms (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A)) following ketamine infusion. This improvement is supported by one of the earlier placebo-controlled trials of ketamine which demonstrated that the psychic anxiety item was one of 4 (out of 21) items on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) demonstrating significant improvement after ketamine infusion.
The investigators goal is to conduct a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study to explore the efficacy and time course of action of intravenous ketamine in the treatment of SAD.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||18 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Crossover Assignment|
|Masking:||Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)|
|Official Title:||Ketamine Infusion for Social Anxiety Disorder|
|Actual Study Start Date :||January 2, 2015|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||September 27, 2016|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||September 27, 2016|
Experimental: Ketamine infusion
A ketamine infusion was given on day 0 (28) at a dose of 0.5mg/kg over 40 minutes. Assessments were conducted pre-infusion, 3-h post-infusion, and days 1 (1+28), 2 (2+28), 3 (3+28), 5 (5+28), 7 (7+28), 10 (10+28) and 14 (14+28) post-infusion.
Ketamine (a single 0.5mg/kg intravenously over 40 minutes).
Other Name: Ketalar
Experimental: Saline infusion
A saline infusion was given on day 0 (28) at a dose of 0.5mg/kg over 40 minutes. Assessments were conducted pre-infusion, 3-h post-infusion, and days 1 (1+28), 2 (2+28), 3 (3+28), 5 (5+28), 7 (7+28), 10 (10+28) and 14 (14+28) post-infusion.
Saline (a single 0.5mg/kg intravenously over 40 minutes).
Other Name: Placebo
- Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety Symptoms (VAS-anxiety) [ Time Frame: Day 1 (1+28) ]
Instrument that tries to measure anxiety, that is believed to range across a continuum of values and cannot easily be directly measured.We used a straight horizontal line of 100 mm in length. The ends were defined as the extreme limits of the parameter to be measured (anxiety); oriented from the left (no anxiety) to the right (worst anxiety ever felt). The patient marks on the line the point that they feel represents their perception of their current state.The VAS score is determined by measuring in millimeters from the left hand end of the line to the point that the patient marks.
We examined Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for anxiety symptoms at screening, 1 hour prior to infusion, 1, 2 and 3 hours after infusion, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days following a single ketamine/saline infusion.
- Liebowitz Social Anxiety Score (LSAS) [ Time Frame: Day 1 (1+28) ]Clinician-administered scale for the assessment of fear and avoidance found in social phobia (SAD); it has 24 items divided into 2 subscales, 13 for performance anxiety, and 11 for social situations each rated from 0 to 3 (0=none,1=mild,2=moderate,3=definite). The sum scores for Fear and Avoidance results in an overall score (max 144 points). There are 4 clinician subscales: fear of social interaction, fear of performance, avoidance of social interaction and avoidance of performance 0 to 30= SAD is unlikely 30 to 60=SAD is probable 60 to 90=SADis very probable >90= SAD highly probable
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02083926
|United States, Connecticut|
|Connecticut Mental Health Center|
|New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 06519|
|Principal Investigator:||Michael H. Bloch, MD, MS||Yale University|