An Observational Study of Natural History of Cardiovascular Diseases
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The purpose of the study is to estimate the contemporary prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the United Kingdom (UK) and to describe the incidence and prevalence of stroke, mini stroke (TIA), Heart Attack (MI), deaths and interventions repairs for carotids and occlusive arterial disease in a large population. This study will also allow us to obtain reliable information on the age- and sex-specific relevance of tobacco and alcohol consumption, obesity, diabetes and blood pressure as risk factors for different cardiovascular diseases. By following up a large group of participants for 5 years, we will be able to estimate the annual risk of stroke and other CVD events associated with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis and atrial fibrillation.
The contemporary prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery disease and atrial fibrillation by age and sex and natural history of stroke associated with asymptomatic carotid lesion and atrial fibrillation identified by screening [ Time Frame: 5 years ]
Secondary Outcome Measures :
Effect of a targeted, comprehensive and cost-effective cardiovascular screening programme on a number of participants with adverse events [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
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Ages Eligible for Study:
20 Years and older (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:
The study consists of an observational, prospective study of the prevalence of and risk factors for AF, CAS and stroke amongst 5,200 people who voluntarily attended cardiovascular screening appointments provided by Life Line Screening.
This cohort will include 1300 participants who are exposed to significant carotid artery stenosis (more than 50% artery occlusion identified by ultrasound scan) and atrial fibrillation. We also aim to recruit 3900 participants who do not have carotid artery disease or atrial fibrillation as control group and for comparison purposes. The control group will be drawn from a population that is similar to the exposed group in all respects other than their carotid disease and atrial fibrillation. The data collected for the control group will be the same and will be obtained in the same way as those on the exposed group.
Participants who underwent self-selected, private screening program held by Life Line Screening
Adult participants over the age of 20
Participants who filled in appropriate health questionnaire and signed relevant consent part of their questionnaire
Cohort observation cases: participants with significant carotid artery disease (>50% stenosis) detected by duplex ultrasound and/or AF
Cohort observation controls: Participants without CAS detected by Duplex ultrasound or AF
Those who are unable to give informed consent
Participants under 20 years old
Participants who filled in the health questionnaire incompletely