Pharmacists and Pharmacy Technicians to Improve Admission Medication History Accuracy
|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02026453|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : January 3, 2014
Results First Posted : October 6, 2017
Last Update Posted : February 21, 2018
We tested two interventions to improve the accuracy of medication histories obtained at hospital admission. The interventions target elderly and chronically ill patients prone to erroneous medication histories and resultant medication errors. For targeted patients, we tested the effect of using pharmacists and pharmacy technicians to obtain an initial medication history. This was studied using a randomized controlled trial of usual care (which involves nurses and physicians) vs usual care + pharmacists vs usual care + pharmacy technicians to obtain an admission medication history.
The overarching hypothesis was that by leveraging pharmacists and pharmacy technicians we can minimize admission medication history errors and related downstream events.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment|
|Adverse Drug Events||Other: Pharmacist obtains admission medication history Other: Pharmacy technician obtains admission medication history|
Importance: Admission medication history (AMH) errors frequently cause medication order errors and patient harm.
Objective: To quantify AMH error reduction achieved when pharmacy staff obtain AMHs before admission medication orders (AMO) are placed.
Design: Three-arm randomized clinical trial. Setting: Large hospital with community and trainee physicians. Population: 306 enrolled patients with complex medical histories. Interventions: In one intervention arm, pharmacists, and in the second intervention arm, pharmacy technicians obtained initial AMHs prior to admission. They obtained and reconciled medication information from multiple sources. All arms, including the control arm, received usual AMH care. This included common process variation occurring in: accuracy of pre-existing medication histories; nurses' ability to obtain AMHs at hospital admission; and admitting physicians' efforts to verify and order from prior AMHs.
Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was severity-weighted mean AMH error score. To detect AMH errors, all patients received reference standard AMHs, which were compared with intervention and control group AMHs. AMH errors and resultant AMO errors were independently identified and rated by ≥2 investigators as significant, serious or life-threatening. Each error was assigned 1, 4 or 9 points, respectively, to calculate severity-weighted AMH and AMO error scores for each patient.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||306 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Primary Purpose:||Health Services Research|
|Official Title:||Pharmacists and Pharmacy Technicians to Improve Admission Medication History Accuracy|
|Study Start Date :||January 2014|
|Primary Completion Date :||February 2014|
|Study Completion Date :||October 2016|
No Intervention: Usual care
Physicians and nurses obtain admission medication history.
Experimental: Pharmacist obtains home med hx
Pharmacist obtains admission medication history, although usual care practices may also continue.
|Other: Pharmacist obtains admission medication history|
Experimental: Pharm tech obtains home med hx
Pharmacy technician obtains admission medication history, although usual care practices may also continue.
|Other: Pharmacy technician obtains admission medication history|
- Mean Severity-weighted Admission Medication History (AMH) Error Score [ Time Frame: Attempted to obtain the day after admission ]The primary outcome was severity-weighted mean admission medication history (AMH) error score which are weighted error counts. Significant, serious, and life-threatening errors count for 1, 4, and 9 points each, respectively. As such, higher scores indicate either more errors or errors of greater severity. The range includes integers starting with 0 (indicating zero errors) up to infinity. To detect AMH errors, all patients received reference standard AMHs, which were compared with intervention and control group AMHs. AMH errors and resultant AMO errors were independently identified and rated by ≥2 investigators as significant, serious or life-threatening.
- Mean Severity-Weighted Admission Medication Order (AMO) Error Score [ Time Frame: Attempted to obtain the day after admission ]The severity-weighted admission medication order (AMO) error score are weighted error counts. Significant, serious, and life-threatening errors count for 1, 4, and 9 points each, respectively. Higher scores indicate either more errors or errors of greater severity. The range includes integers starting with 0 (indicating zero errors) up to infinity. For each AMH error identified, two physicians independently reviewed the relevant medications ordered at hospital admission in the context of the clinical chart. They classified each AMH error as either resulting in no AMO error, or an AMO error of significant, serious, or life-threatening severity. A third physician adjudicated disagreements. In cases where the admitting physician's knowledge of an AMH error was unclear and the orders clinically reasonable, we determined the AMH error did not lead to any AMO error. Because reviewers needed chart access to determine error severity, there was no practicable way to mask study arm.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02026453
|Principal Investigator:||Joshua M Pevnick, MD, MSHS||Cedars-Sinai Health System|