The Effects of Exercise on Depression Symptoms Using Levels of Neurotransmitters and EEG as Markers
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02023281|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : December 30, 2013
Last Update Posted : December 30, 2013
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of exercise on the symptoms of depression using serum levels of serotonin, catecholamine's, Alpha EEG asymmetry, and self-report of symptoms as markers.
In an attempt to further understand the mechanisms of improved mood through exercise; this study will examine the known factors that contribute to depressed mood in a single study using serotonin and catecholamine levels via blood serum and EEG slow wave asymmetry. Such information can be useful in understanding the overall neurological components of depression and the effects of exercise on the brain in depressed individuals that would make the prescription of exercise a viable treatment option.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Depression||Behavioral: Exercise||Not Applicable|
There is an increasing demand for clinical effective, safe, and cost conscious forms of treatment for depression. Research shows depression to account for the largest decrease in overall health compared to asthma, angina, arthritis, and diabetes (Maussavi, 2007). The cost of lost productivity at work due to depression is a new focus of research as no current and accurate numbers exist. Stewart, Ricci, Hahn, & Morganstein (2013) were among the first to examine this issue and found that lost productivity due to depression cost an estimated $44 billion dollars per year in spite of current medical treatments commonly prescribed. The lost productivity among those with depression and the low level of treatment suggest that there may be cost effective opportunities for improving depression outcomes within the general workforce and society at large.
The question of value regarding the use of exercise as a treatment for depression has remained a source of investigation in recent years. In cooperation with Centra Health and Liberty University, this study seeks to understand the mechanisms that make exercise a viable treatment in depression by examining self-report of symptoms, serum levels of serotonin and catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrin, and dopamine) and frontal slow wave EEG activity as markers. Although these markers have been examined individually in previous studies, this is the only known study that examines each of these components in a single study. Such information can be useful in understanding the overall neurological components of depression and the effects of exercise on the brain in depressed individuals that would make the prescription of exercise a viable treatment in depression.
Multiple trials, meta-analyses, and reviews have been conducted in the attempt to clarify the use of exercise in depressed patients. Research has shown that exercise as a treatment may result in fewer relapses than sertraline (Strohle, 2009). Similar results are indicated when exercise is prescribed as an adjunct treatment with psychotherapy (Balon, Sidhu, & Pankhuree, 2009; Blumenthal, Smith, & Hoffman, 2012; Gill, Womack, & Safranek, 2010). Preliminary characteristics of the ideal dosage of exercise as a treatment have been researched, although a definitive dose-response curve has yet to be produced (Callaghan, Khalil, Morres, & Carter, 2011; Perraton, Kumar, & Machotka, 2010).
Electroencephalographic (EEG) scans have been shown to demonstrate a left frontal bias in alpha (8-12 Hz) and theta (4-7 Hz) wave activity (Allen, Urry, Hitt, & Coan, 2004; Demos, 2005; Iosifescu et al., 2008; Nissen et al., 2006). The up-training or down-training of individual bandwidths in the treatment of depression, anxiety, ADHD, and traumatic brain injury have long been established (La Vaque, 2002). Although there are no established norms for neurotransmitter levels, we know through clinical medication trials that the inhibition of the reuptake of serotonin and or norepinephrine improve mood. Previous studies examining low levels of serotonin and decreased mood have found a correlation between exercise and increased serotonin availability without the use of pharmaceuticals (Chaouloff et al., 1985; Ernst, Olsen, Pinel, Lam, & Christie, 2006; Jacobs & Fornal, 1999). More routine type studies often use neurotransmitter levels as markers (Lande, Williams, Fileta, 2012; Lidberg, Tuck, Asberg, Scalia-Tomba, & Bertilsson, 1985; Mann & Stanley, 1984).
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||11 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Single Group Assignment|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||The Effects of Exercise on Depression Symptoms Using Levels of Neurotransmitters and EEG as Markers|
|Study Start Date :||March 2013|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||May 2013|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||May 2013|
No Intervention: Control Group
Control group will serve as a wait list and not be exposed to the intervention.
Experimental: Experimental Group
The experimental group will engage in a mild-moderate level of structured and clinically supervised exercise program for approx. 30-45 mins 2-3 days per week for 12 weeks
The experimental group will engage in mild-moderate level of exercise. This program will be structured and clinically supervised. Exercise will take place 2-3 days per week for a duration of 30-45 mins. for 12 weeks.
- Scores on the Beck Depression Inventory-II [ Time Frame: Pre and post intervention over the 3 month span of the study ]The BDI-II is a 21 item self-report screening tool that measures symptoms of depression.
- Serum levels of serotonin and catecholomine [ Time Frame: Pre and post intervention over the 3 month span of the study ]Blood collection pre and post intervention for the processing of serum for serotonin and catecholomine.
- Mean EEG alpha frequency data in the pre-frontal cortex. [ Time Frame: Pre and post intervention over the 3 month span of the study. ]Participants will have an EEG measuring pre-frontal cortex mean alpha frequency.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02023281
|United States, Virginia|
|Lynchburg, Virginia, United States, 24502|
|Centra Health; Health Works|
|Lynchburg, Virginia, United States, 24503|
|Principal Investigator:||Timothy H Barclay, Ph.D.||Liberty University|