Laser Therapy for Onychomycosis in Patients Wih Diabetes at Risk for Diabetic Foot Complications (LASER-1)
In a sham controlled double-blind trial we aim to establish the efficacy and safety of local application of laser therapy in patients with diabetes with onychomycosis and risk factors for diabetes related foot complications. Onychomycosis leads to thickened and distorted nails, which in turn leads to increased local pressure. The combination of onychomycosis and neuropathy or peripheral arterial disease (PAD) increases the risk of developing diabetes related foot complications. Usual care for high-risk patients with diabetes and onychomycosis is completely symptomatic with frequent skiving and clipping of the nails. No effective curative local therapies exist and systemic agents are often withheld due to concerns for side effects and interactions.
Aim: The primary aim is to evaluate the efficacy of 4 sessions N-YAG 1064nM laser application on the one-year clinical and microbiological cure rate in a randomised, double-blinded sham-controlled design with blinded outcome assessment.
Study population: Patients with diabetes mellitus, with an increased risk for diabetic foot ulcers.
Intervention: local laser treatment from a podiatrist and the other group receives treatment according to a control procedure. The laser procedure will be performed as a sham procedure by a second podiatrist.
Main study parameters/endpoints: The effect of 4 sessions of laser therapy on cure rate (clinical and microbiological) after one year.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Laser Therapy for Onychomycosis in Patients Wih Diabetes at Risk for Diabetic Foot Complications|
- complete cure of the target nail [ Time Frame: outcome measured after 1 year ]after one year the clinical and microbiological cure rate of the target nail will be compared with usual care in the placebo group.
- Microbiological cure of the target nail [ Time Frame: outcome measured after 1 year ]Patient with a negative microbiologic results of the target nail at week 52 will be regarded as having a microbiological cure. Patients with negative microbiological results at week 30 and positive microbiologic results at week 52 will be regarded as having a second infection. Patients with positive microbiologic results (with the same species) at week 30 and positive results at week 52 (the same species) will be regarded as treatment failure.
- Complete clinical cure of the target nail [ Time Frame: outcome measured after 1 year ]Complete cure is defined as a completely normal nail, or negative microbiological results in case minor abnormalities are present.
- Markedly clinically improved target nail [ Time Frame: outcome measured after 1 year ]A markedly improved nail is defined as a nail with less than 10% abnormalities without hyperkeratosis after 52 weeks in nails that were affected more than 10% of the surface area.
- Onychomycosis severity index below 6 (in patients with scores >6 at study entry) of the target nail [ Time Frame: outcome measured after 1 year ]
- Complete clinical cure of all affected toes [ Time Frame: outcome measured after 1 year ]
- Change in quality of life [ Time Frame: outcome measured after 1 year ]WHO-5 and NailQol questionnaires are taken at baseline and week 52. Translated disease specific questionnaire; NailQol
- Change surface healthy target nail / all clinically infected toes patients free of hyperkeratosis [ Time Frame: outcome after 52 weeks ]
|Actual Study Start Date:||March 2015|
|Study Completion Date:||July 7, 2017|
|Primary Completion Date:||July 7, 2017 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Nd:YAG laser pulse therapy
Nd:YAG laser pulse therapy Patients are treated with laser session in week 0, 2, 4, and 12. The settings are; 1064 nm, spot size 3 mm, 20 J /cm2, 5 Hz, power 10 W, pulse duration 132 millisecond. A maximum of two sequential sessions (one session on the horizontal and one the vertical passing) will be applied to eliminate potential safety issues in those patients with a lack protective sensibility.
Device: Nd:YAG laser pulse therapy
Other Name: S30 PODYLAS
Sham Comparator: Sham
Sham treatment Patients are treated with a sham session in week 0, 2, 4, and 12. The study settings are similar to the laser except the laser beam. Because the patient is also blinded, they can't see the procedure. The sound and the beeps are audible similar to the laser treatment.
Device: Sham procedure
Setting of the study: Hospital, outpatient departments (Foot clinic, Isala, Zwolle)
Inclusion criteria: Patients with clinical suspicion and microbiologic confirmation of onychomycosis , diagnosis of T1DM or T2DM, 18 years or older, at risk for diabetic foot ulcers defined by a modified Simm's classification score 1 or 2 with either neuropathy or PAD, nail involvement of at least 25% of the target nail.
Exclusion criteria: no microbiologic confirmation, Simms' classification score 3, the presence or history of diabetic foot ulcers, ischemic pain, ankle brachial index < 0.9, patients receiving dialysis, severe renal insufficiently (eGFR below 30 ml/min), a documented toe pressure below 50 mmHg, use of systemic or topical antifungal agents 3 months prior to inclusion, use of immunosuppressive drugs, presence of psoriasis, lichen planus, or other abnormalities that could result in clinically abnormal toenails, a history of epilepsy and insufficient knowledge of the Dutch language. Patients with a dark skin color (Fitzpatrick 4 and 5) are excluded since dark skin color is associated with dark nails, which theoretically leads to increased temperatures during laser application
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01996995
|Isala Diabetes Centre, Isala Hospital|
|Zwolle, Netherlands, 8000 GK|
|Study Director:||H.J.G. Bilo, professor MD||Isala Diabetes Centre, Zwolle|
|Study Director:||Nanne Kleefstra, MD PhD||Isala Diabetes Centre,Zwolle|
|Principal Investigator:||G.W.D. Landman, MD PhD||Isala Diabetes Centre, Zwolle|
|Principal Investigator:||Leonie Nijenhuis - Rosien, Bsc||Isala Diabetes Centre, Zwolle|