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90‐Day Cobalt Supplementation Study to Investigate the Cobalt Body Burden in Ten Healthy Adult Volunteers

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01990794
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 21, 2013
Results First Posted : October 6, 2014
Last Update Posted : October 6, 2014
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
DePuy Orthopaedics
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Cardno ChemRisk

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to investigate steady-state cobalt levels following dietary supplementation for 90 days with 1 mg cobalt/day (as cobalt chloride in solution) in healthy adult volunteers.

Condition or disease
Cobalt Biokinetics Safety of Cobalt Dietary Supplementation

Detailed Description:
Over the counter cobalt (Co) dietary supplements are available for sale in the United States, but little is known regarding their clinical effects and biokinetic distribution and body burden with long-term use. This study assessed blood kinetics, steady-state levels, biochemical responses, and clinical effects in five adult males and five adult females who voluntarily ingested approximately 1.0 mg Co/day of a commercially available Co supplement over a three month period. Volunteers were instructed to take the Co-dietary supplement in the morning according to the manufacturer's label. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for a number of biochemical parameters before, during, and after dosing. Hearing, vision, cardiac, and neurological functions were also assessed in volunteers before, during, and after dosing.

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Study Type : Observational
Actual Enrollment : 13 participants
Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective
Official Title: A 90-Day Cobalt Supplementation Study to Investigate the Cobalt Body Burden in Ten Healthy Adult Volunteers
Study Start Date : June 2012
Actual Primary Completion Date : March 2013
Actual Study Completion Date : July 2013

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Drug Information available for: Cobalt

Group/Cohort
Study Volunteers
Volunteers (males and females) were instructed to take the cobalt dietary supplement in the morning according to the manufacturer's label, which suggested a serving of 1 mg cobalt (~2 mL) daily "in water or juice as maintenance." Dietary supplementation lasted for approximately three months.



Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Cobalt Whole Blood Concentrations [ Time Frame: Before, during and after cobalt supplementation ]
    The cobalt concentration in whole blood and serum was determined one to two weeks pre-dosing and on the day of the first day of dosing before taking the supplement. Samples were also analyzed during the dosing period as follows: Day 4/5, Day 8/9, Day 14/16, Day 22/23, Day 29/30, Day 43/44, Day 57/58, Day 71/72, and Day 88/90. Cobalt concentration in whole blood and serum was also determined at one, two, six, ten and 16 weeks post-dosing.

  2. Cobalt Serum Concentrations [ Time Frame: Before, during and after cobalt supplementation ]
    The cobalt concentration in whole blood and serum was determined one to two weeks pre-dosing and on the day of the first day of dosing before taking the supplement. Samples were also analyzed during the dosing period as follows: Day 4/5, Day 8/9, Day 14/16, Day 22/23, Day 29/30, Day 43/44, Day 57/58, Day 71/72, and Day 88/90. Cobalt concentration in whole blood and serum was also determined at one, two, six, ten and 16 weeks post-dosing.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Albumin Bound Cobalt Fraction in Serum [ Time Frame: Study volunteers will be followed for the duration of the study, an average of about 8 months for most volunteers ]
    The fraction of albumin bound cobalt in serum was determined one to two weeks pre-dosing and on the day of the first dose before taking the supplement. Samples were also analyzed during the dosing period as follows: Day 4/5, Day 8/9, Day 14/16, Day 22/23, Day 29/30, Day 43/44, Day 57/58, Day 71/72, Day 88/90 and the fraction of albumin bound cobalt in serum was also determined at one and two weeks post-dosing.

  2. Effects on the Immune System [ Time Frame: 0 weeks and three months ]
    Sensitivity to metals before and after cobalt supplementation was assessed by an in vitro lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) performed at week 0 and after three months of cobalt supplementation. The average proliferation rate for each metal treatment was normalized to individual proliferation rates of untreated control cells which generated a stimulation index (SI). According to the manufacture, the SI ranges from 0-15, with an SI from 2 to 4 indicated mild reactivity, from 5 to 8 indicated moderate reactivity, and >8 indicated high reactivity to the metal. The data is presented as the averaged normalized lymphocyte transformation response to each metal in men and women combined (n = 10).

  3. Hemoglobin Levels After 1, 2 and 3 Months of Dosing [ Time Frame: Study volunteers were assessed before, during and after cobalt supplementation (2 wk post) ]
    Blood chemistries assessed during the study included a lipid panel, comprehensive metabolic panel, creatine kinase-myocardial band, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and complete blood count with differential, total iron, and ferritin. Blood chemistries were assessed at one or two week pre-dose, pre-dose/ Day 1 before taking the supplement, Day 29/30, Day 57/58, Day 88/90 and one and two weeks post-dose.

  4. Changes in Audiological Function [ Time Frame: Baseline, at the study midpoint, and at the study completion ]
    Audiologic assessments including pure tone threshold determination at frequencies ranging from 250 to 16000 Hz were performed with volunteers serving as their own baseline controls for receptive changes during the study (i.e., week 0, ~day 45, ~day 90). Audiologic assessments including a pure-tone threshold determination at frequencies that ranged from 250 to 16000 Hz were performed with volunteers serving as their own baseline controls for receptive changes during the study. Decreases in hearing were considered clinically significant when one of the following 3 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association criteria were met: 1) a ≥20-dB decrease in the pure-tone threshold at one test frequency, 2) a ≥10-dB decrease at 2 adjacent test frequencies, or 3) the loss of 3 consecutive test frequencies where responses were previously obtained.

  5. Changes in Cardiac Function [ Time Frame: Baseline, at the study midpoint, and at the study completion ]
    Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic examinations were used to assess cardiac anatomy, structure, and function during the study with volunteers serving as their own baseline controls for changes during the study (i.e., week 0, ~day 45, ~day 90).

  6. Changes in Visual Function [ Time Frame: Baseline, at the study midpoint, and at the study completion ]
    Ophthalmology studies included an assessment of visual acuity, slit lamp evaluations, and visual field testing. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic nerve head (ONH) were assessed using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Volunteers served as their own baseline controls for changes during the study (i.e., week 0, ~day 45, ~day 90).

  7. Changes in Neurological Function (Peroneal Motor Amplitude) [ Time Frame: Baseline, at the study midpoint, and at the study completion ]
    Values of the sural sensory and peroneal motor variables. Volunteers served as their own baseline controls for changes during the study (i.e., week 0, ~day 45, ~day 90, and ~4-6 post-weeks).

  8. White Blood Cell (WBC) Levels After 1, 2 and 3 Months of Cobalt Dietary Supplementation [ Time Frame: Study volunteers were assessed before, during and after cobalt supplementation (2 wk post) ]
    Blood chemistries assessed during the study included a lipid panel, comprehensive metabolic panel, creatine kinase-myocardial band, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and complete blood count with differential, total iron, and ferritin. Blood chemistries were assessed at one or two week pre-dose, pre-dose/ Day 1 before taking the supplement, Day 29/30, Day 57/58, Day 88/90 and one and two weeks post-dose.

  9. Red Blood Cell (RBC) Levels After 1, 2 and 3 Months of Dosing [ Time Frame: Study volunteers were assessed before, during and after cobalt supplementation (2 wk post) ]
    Blood chemistries assessed during the study included a lipid panel, comprehensive metabolic panel, creatine kinase-myocardial band, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and complete blood count with differential, total iron, and ferritin. Blood chemistries were assessed at one or two week pre-dose, pre-dose/ Day 1 before taking the supplement, Day 29/30, Day 57/58, Day 88/90 and one and two weeks post-dose.

  10. Hematocrit Levels After 1, 2 and 3 Months of Dosing [ Time Frame: Study volunteers were assessed before, during and after cobalt supplementation (2 wk post) ]
    Blood chemistries assessed during the study included a lipid panel, comprehensive metabolic panel, creatine kinase-myocardial band, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and complete blood count with differential, total iron, and ferritin. Blood chemistries were assessed at one or two week pre-dose, pre-dose/ Day 1 before taking the supplement, Day 29/30, Day 57/58, Day 88/90 and one and two weeks post-dose.

  11. Protein Levels After 1, 2 and 3 Months of Dosing [ Time Frame: Study volunteers were assessed before, during and after cobalt supplementation (2 wk post) ]
    Blood chemistries assessed during the study included a lipid panel, comprehensive metabolic panel, creatine kinase-myocardial band, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and complete blood count with differential, total iron, and ferritin. Blood chemistries were assessed at one or two week pre-dose, pre-dose/ Day 1 before taking the supplement, Day 29/30, Day 57/58, Day 88/90 and one and two weeks post-dose.

  12. Albumin Levels After 1, 2 and 3 Months of Dosing [ Time Frame: Study volunteers were assessed before, during and after cobalt supplementation (2 wk post) ]
    Blood chemistries assessed during the study included a lipid panel, comprehensive metabolic panel, creatine kinase-myocardial band, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and complete blood count with differential, total iron, and ferritin. Blood chemistries were assessed at one or two week pre-dose, pre-dose/ Day 1 before taking the supplement, Day 29/30, Day 57/58, Day 88/90 and one and two weeks post-dose.

  13. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Levels After 1, 2 and 3 Months of Dosing [ Time Frame: Study volunteers were assessed before, during and after cobalt supplementation (2 wk post) ]
    Blood chemistries assessed during the study included a lipid panel, comprehensive metabolic panel, creatine kinase-myocardial band, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and complete blood count with differential, total iron, and ferritin. Blood chemistries were assessed at one or two week pre-dose, pre-dose/ Day 1 before taking the supplement, Day 29/30, Day 57/58, Day 88/90 and one and two weeks post-dose.

  14. T4 Levels After 1, 2 and 3 Months of Dosing [ Time Frame: Study volunteers were assessed before, during and after cobalt supplementation (2 wk post) ]
    Blood chemistries assessed during the study included a lipid panel, comprehensive metabolic panel, creatine kinase-myocardial band, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and complete blood count with differential, total iron, and ferritin. Blood chemistries were assessed at one or two week pre-dose, pre-dose/ Day 1 before taking the supplement, Day 29/30, Day 57/58, Day 88/90 and one and two weeks post-dose.

  15. Total Iron Levels After 1, 2 and 3 Months of Dosing [ Time Frame: Study volunteers were assessed before, during and after cobalt supplementation (2 wk post) ]
    Blood chemistries assessed during the study included a lipid panel, comprehensive metabolic panel, creatine kinase-myocardial band, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and complete blood count with differential, total iron, and ferritin. Blood chemistries were assessed at one or two week pre-dose, pre-dose/ Day 1 before taking the supplement, Day 29/30, Day 57/58, Day 88/90 and one and two weeks post-dose.

  16. Ferritin Levels After 1, 2 and 3 Months of Dosing [ Time Frame: Study volunteers were assessed before, during and after cobalt supplementation (2 wk post) ]
    Blood chemistries assessed during the study included a lipid panel, comprehensive metabolic panel, creatine kinase-myocardial band, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and complete blood count with differential, total iron, and ferritin. Blood chemistries were assessed at one or two week pre-dose, pre-dose/ Day 1 before taking the supplement, Day 29/30, Day 57/58, Day 88/90 and one and two weeks post-dose.

  17. Creatine Creatine Kinase-Myocardial Band (CK-MB) Levels After 1, 2 and 3 Months of Dosing [ Time Frame: Study volunteers were assessed before, during and after cobalt supplementation (2 wk post) ]
    Blood chemistries assessed during the study included a lipid panel, comprehensive metabolic panel, creatine kinase-myocardial band, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and complete blood count with differential, total iron, and ferritin. Blood chemistries were assessed at one or two week pre-dose, pre-dose/ Day 1 before taking the supplement, Day 29/30, Day 57/58, Day 88/90 and one and two weeks post-dose.

  18. Creatinine Levels After 1, 2 and 3 Months of Dosing [ Time Frame: Study volunteers were assessed before, during and after cobalt supplementation (2 wk post) ]
    Blood chemistries assessed during the study included a lipid panel, comprehensive metabolic panel, creatine kinase-myocardial band, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and complete blood count with differential, total iron, and ferritin. Blood chemistries were assessed at one or two week pre-dose, pre-dose/ Day 1 before taking the supplement, Day 29/30, Day 57/58, Day 88/90 and one and two weeks post-dose.

  19. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) Levels After 1, 2 and 3 Months of Dosing [ Time Frame: Study volunteers were assessed before, during and after cobalt supplementation (2 wk post) ]
    Blood chemistries assessed during the study included a lipid panel, comprehensive metabolic panel, creatine kinase-myocardial band, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and complete blood count with differential, total iron, and ferritin. Blood chemistries were assessed at one or two week pre-dose, pre-dose/ Day 1 before taking the supplement, Day 29/30, Day 57/58, Day 88/90 and one and two weeks post-dose.

  20. Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) Levels After 1, 2 and 3 Months of Dosing [ Time Frame: Study volunteers were assessed before, during and after cobalt supplementation (2 wk post) ]
    Blood chemistries assessed during the study included a lipid panel, comprehensive metabolic panel, creatine kinase-myocardial band, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and complete blood count with differential, total iron, and ferritin. Blood chemistries were assessed at one or two week pre-dose, pre-dose/ Day 1 before taking the supplement, Day 29/30, Day 57/58, Day 88/90 and one and two weeks post-dose.

  21. HDL Cholesterol Levels After 3 Months of Cobalt Supplementation [ Time Frame: Study volunteers were assessed before and at the end of cobalt supplementation ]
    Blood chemistries assessed during the study included a lipid panel, comprehensive metabolic panel, creatine kinase-myocardial band, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and complete blood count with differential, total iron, and ferritin. HDL cholesterol levels were assessed before cobalt dietary supplementation and after three months of supplementation.

  22. Total Cholesterol Levels After 3 Months of Cobalt Supplementation [ Time Frame: Study volunteers were assessed before and at the end of cobalt supplementation ]
    Blood chemistries assessed during the study included a lipid panel, comprehensive metabolic panel, creatine kinase-myocardial band, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and complete blood count with differential, total iron, and ferritin. Total cholesterol levels were assessed before cobalt dietary supplementation and after three months of supplementation.

  23. Triglyceride Levels After 3 Months of Cobalt Supplementation [ Time Frame: Study volunteers were assessed before and at the end of cobalt supplementation ]
    Blood chemistries assessed during the study included a lipid panel, comprehensive metabolic panel, creatine kinase-myocardial band, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and complete blood count with differential, total iron, and ferritin. Triglyceride levels were assessed before cobalt dietary supplementation and after three months of supplementation.

  24. Glucose Levels After 1, 2 and 3 Months of Dosing [ Time Frame: Study volunteers were assessed before, during and after cobalt supplementation (2 wk post) ]
    Blood chemistries assessed during the study included a lipid panel, comprehensive metabolic panel, creatine kinase-myocardial band, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and complete blood count with differential, total iron, and ferritin. Blood chemistries were assessed at one or two week pre-dose, pre-dose/ Day 1 before taking the supplement, Day 29/30, Day 57/58, Day 88/90 and one and two weeks post-dose.

  25. Cobalt Urine Concentrations [ Time Frame: During cobalt supplementation ]
    A 24 hr urine collection for cobalt analysis was performed at Day 14/16, Day 43/44 and Day 88/90.

  26. Cobalt Urine Concentrations After Cessation of Cobalt Supplementation [ Time Frame: After cobalt supplementation ]
    A 24 hr urine collection for cobalt analysis was performed on three volunteers (two females and one male) at one, two, six and ten weeks post-dosing. The one male volunteer provided three consecutive 24-hr urine samples at the one and two week post-dosing time points; data for individual urine collections were averaged together to give an average one and two week post-dosing data concentration.

  27. Changes in Cardiac Function (LVEF) [ Time Frame: Baseline, at the study midpoint, and at the study completion ]
    Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic examinations were used to assess cardiac anatomy, structure, and function during the study with volunteers serving as their own baseline controls for changes during the study (i.e., week 0, ~day 45, ~day 90).

  28. Changes in Cardiac Function (LA Volume Index) [ Time Frame: Baseline, at the study midpoint, and at the study completion ]
    Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic examinations were used to assess cardiac anatomy, structure, and function during the study with volunteers serving as their own baseline controls for changes during the study (i.e., week 0, ~day 45, ~day 90).

  29. Changes in Visual Function (Average RNFL Thickness) [ Time Frame: Baseline, at the study midpoint, and at the study completion ]
    Ophthalmology studies included an assessment of visual acuity, slit lamp evaluations, and visual field testing. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic nerve head (ONH) were assessed using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Volunteers served as their own baseline controls for changes during the study (i.e., week 0, ~day 45, ~day 90).

  30. Changes in Visual Function (Average C:D Ratio) [ Time Frame: Baseline, at the study midpoint, and at the study completion ]
    Ophthalmology studies included an assessment of visual acuity, slit lamp evaluations, and visual field testing. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic nerve head (ONH) were assessed using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Volunteers served as their own baseline controls for changes during the study (i.e., week 0, ~day 45, ~day 90).

  31. Changes in Visual Function (Cup Volume) [ Time Frame: Baseline, at the study midpoint, and at the study completion ]
    Ophthalmology studies included an assessment of visual acuity, slit lamp evaluations, and visual field testing. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic nerve head (ONH) were assessed using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Volunteers served as their own baseline controls for changes during the study (i.e., week 0, ~day 45, ~day 90).

  32. Changes in Visual Function (VFI) [ Time Frame: Baseline, at the study midpoint, and at the study completion ]
    Ophthalmology studies included an assessment of visual acuity, slit lamp evaluations, and visual field testing. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic nerve head (ONH) were assessed using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Volunteers served as their own baseline controls for changes during the study (i.e., week 0, ~day 45, ~day 90).

  33. Changes in Visual Function (Mean Deviation and PSD) [ Time Frame: Baseline, at the study midpoint, and at the study completion ]
    Ophthalmology studies included an assessment of visual acuity, slit lamp evaluations, and visual field testing. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic nerve head (ONH) were assessed using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Volunteers served as their own baseline controls for changes during the study (i.e., week 0, ~day 45, ~day 90).

  34. Changes in Neurological Function (Sural Sensory Amplitude) [ Time Frame: Baseline, at the study midpoint, and at the study completion ]
    Values of the sural sensory and peroneal motor variables. Volunteers served as their own baseline controls for changes during the study (i.e., week 0, ~day 45, ~day 90, and ~4-6 post-weeks).

  35. Changes in Neurological Function (Velocity) [ Time Frame: Baseline, at the study midpoint, and at the study completion ]
    Values of the sural sensory and peroneal motor variables. Volunteers served as their own baseline controls for changes during the study (i.e., week 0, ~day 45, ~day 90, and ~4-6 post-weeks).


Biospecimen Retention:   Samples With DNA
whole blood, serum and urine


Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
Healthy adult volunteers from work site and off work site
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Subject ≥ 18 years old.
  • Subject able to understand and willing to sign a written informed consent form for the study.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Subject is unwilling to discontinue current multivitamins or other types of dietary supplements while on study
  • Subject has a documented history of an allergy to cobalt
  • Subject has a documented history of severe cardiac problems (e.g., congestive heart failure, myocardial ischemia within past 12 months, cardiomyopathy)
  • Subject has a documented history of thyroid, kidney, or liver disease
  • Subject has insulin-dependent diabetes
  • Subject has a concurrent illness or personal stressor which in the opinion of the investigator may interfere with the subject's ability to perform the study's requirements.
  • Subject has a total joint replacement (e.g., knee, hip, shoulder)
  • Subject is pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Subject is unwilling to follow protocol requirements
  • Subject weight is less than 45 kg

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01990794


Sponsors and Collaborators
Cardno ChemRisk
DePuy Orthopaedics
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: David Galbraith, MD Cardno ChemRisk
Study Director: David Galbraith, MD Cardno ChemRisk
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Cardno ChemRisk
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01990794    
Other Study ID Numbers: CR103
First Posted: November 21, 2013    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: October 6, 2014
Last Update Posted: October 6, 2014
Last Verified: October 2014
Keywords provided by Cardno ChemRisk:
Cobalt
Dietary Supplements
Hematological
Thyroid