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Improving Advance Care Planning by Preparing Diverse Seniors for Decision Making (PREPARE)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01990235
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 21, 2013
Last Update Posted : October 17, 2018
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of California, San Francisco

Brief Summary:
The objective of this proposal is to test whether a multi-media website (www.prepareforyourcare.org) that is focused on preparing older adults for communication and medical decision making can help people engage in advance care planning.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Chronic Disease Behavioral: PREPARE Intervention Not Applicable

Detailed Description:
PREPARE is a website (www.prepareforyourcare.org) that teaches patients how to identify what is most important in life, how to communicate their preferences to clinicians and loved ones, and how to make informed decisions. It is written at a 5th grade level and includes voice-overs of text and closed captioning of videos that model advance care planning behaviors. The goal of this proposal is to test the efficacy of PREPARE plus an easy-to-read advance directive, versus an advance directive alone, to improve patient engagement in multiple advance care planning behaviors including discussions with surrogate decision makers and clinicians in addition to advance directive completion. The investigators will also determine whether PREPARE can empower and activate patients within clinical encounters with their clinicians and help to decrease health disparities in advance care planning.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 541 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Supportive Care
Official Title: Improving Advance Care Planning by Preparing Diverse Seniors for Decision Making
Study Start Date : January 2013
Actual Primary Completion Date : November 2017
Actual Study Completion Date : November 2017

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: PREPARE intervention
The PREPARE arm will review the PREPARE website plus the easy-to-read advance directive (AD). Participants will review PREPARE on their own for ≥ 20 minutes with staff present to answer questions. During PREPARE, participants answer preference questions and make an action plan (i.e., commitment to engage in advance care planning). To ensure home access to PREPARE content, participants will be given a website login and PREPARE content in digital video disc (DVD), booklet, and pamphlet format as well as the action plan and AD. One to three days before a primary care visit, the PREPARE arm will receive a reminder to come to their appointment and to bring their action plan.
Behavioral: PREPARE Intervention
At week 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, interviews (telephone or in person based on preference) by blinded staff will assess engagement in advance care planning(ACP), self-efficacy with ACP, and activation in and satisfaction with decision making. Blinded telephone interviews will also assess surrogate reports of patient engagement in ACP.

No Intervention: Control
The Control arm will review an easy-to-read AD. Controls will review the AD for ≥ 15 minutes with study staff present to answer questions and will take the AD home to complete if desired. One to three days before a primary care visit, controls will receive a reminder to come to their appointment.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. New advance care planning documentation in the medical record [ Time Frame: 15 months after study enrollment ]
    The primary outcome is documentation of ACP wishes in the medical record. ACP documentation for the purposes of this study includes legal advance directive forms or other documentation of patients wishes for medical care in clinical notes.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Self-reported engagement in advance care planning behaviors [ Time Frame: 12 months from baseline ]
    Secondary outcomes were chosen to measure the full process of ACP. Using validated questionnaires, we will measure ACP behavior change processes, such as knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness, as well as several ACP actions, such as identifying a surrogate decision maker, identifying values and goals for medical care, choosing the level of leeway in surrogate decision making, discussing one's wishes with clinicians and surrogates, and documenting one's wishes in an advance directive.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   55 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • English-speaking older adults (≥55 years)
  • ≥ 2 chronic illnesses determined by International Classification of Diseases-9 (ICD-9) codes
  • ≥ 2 visits with an outpatient primary care clinician at San Francisco General Hospital in the past year
  • ≥2 additional outpatient/inpatient visits to San Francisco General Hospital in the past year

Exclusion Criteria:

  • deaf, blind, or demented as determined by ICD-9 codes
  • too mentally or physically ill to participate as determined by their clinicians
  • Moderate or severe cognitive impairment as determined by the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and mild cognitive impairment as determined by the SPMSQ plus an abnormal Mini-Cog
  • self-reported poor vision and inability to see the words on a newspaper
  • lack of a telephone
  • traveling or moving out of the area for ≥3 months during the study follow- up period

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01990235

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United States, California
San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center
San Francisco, California, United States, 94110
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of California, San Francisco
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
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Principal Investigator: Rebecca Sudore, MD University of California, San Francisco
Principal Investigator: Dean Schillinger, MD University of California, San Francisco
Principal Investigator: Deborah E Barnes, PhD University of California, San Francisco
Principal Investigator: W. John Boscardin, PhD San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Additional Information:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: University of California, San Francisco
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01990235    
Other Study ID Numbers: 13-10847
R01AG045043 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: November 21, 2013    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: October 17, 2018
Last Verified: October 2018
Keywords provided by University of California, San Francisco:
Advance care planning
Health communication
Health literacy
Medical decision making
primary care
vulnerable population
chronic illness
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Chronic Disease
Disease Attributes
Pathologic Processes