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MRI Temperature Mapping of the Prostate and Urogenital Pelvis Cooled by an Endorectal Balloon

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01979848
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 8, 2013
Last Update Posted : December 13, 2016
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Thomas E. Ahlering, University of California, Irvine

Brief Summary:

Urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunction are potential side effects for men undergoing the successful removal of the cancerous prostate via surgery. Hypothermic cooling via the investigational Endorectal Cooling Balloon has been shown by our group to significantly reduce long term urinary incontinence and may reduce sexual dysfunction in men after robotic prostatectomy, and improve the patient's long term quality of life (QOL). However before successful translation of the endorectal balloon can proceed into the world wide usage, we must understand:

  1. How effectively the tissues for continence and sexual function are cooled within the pelvis.
  2. What is the capacity of vascularized structures (i.e. the neurovascular bundle) to 'cool sink' or diminish the effective cooling and
  3. Determine if the endorectal balloon can be re-designed for improved QOL outcomes in men.

This research study marries two new techniques of Thermal MRI imaging and Endorectal cooling for prostate cancer surgery. MRI is non-invasive. A simple confirmation of effective hypothermic cooling can be achieved by novel MRI thermal mapping of the cooling gradient as it comprehensively sweeps through the rectum across the urogenital pelvis. MRI with temperature adaptive software can accurately map these gradients with non-invasive technique, and answer formidable questions of the effectiveness of hypothermic cooling of the prostate and its direct translation into improved continence and sexual function after surgery. The purpose of this research study is to use Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Thermal MRI with subjects who will receive the investigational endorectal cooling balloon to help further understand how the cooling balloon works, which may translate to other uses in the future, including the diagnosis of patients at a high risk of developing prostate cancer.

Condition or disease
Prostate Cancer Hypothermia Urinary Incontinence Erectile Dysfunction

Detailed Description:
Prostate cancer is the second most frequent cause of cancer death in men and it accounts for 11% of all male cancers. Radical prostatectomy remains the gold standard for localized disease, offering the advantage of precise staging and grading and the real possibility of disease eradication. In the US there are approximately 100,000 radical prostatectomies (RP) performed for prostate cancer annually. However, there are two major challenges to the quality of life outcomes after radical prostatectomy: preserving urinary continence, and sexual function. The quality of life (QOL) after radical prostatectomy relies on the return of continence and sexual function after surgery to their pre-operative 'normal' status. The main factor which determines potency rates for patients is whether or not the nerves at the Neurovascular Bundles (NVB), are spared, and it may take years for sexual function to return. This may be due to the nerve injury from the nerve trauma in the surgical procedure. Similarly, a major factor involved in post-radical prostatectomy incontinence is preservation of the nerves that control the external urethral sphincter, bladder, and urogenital diaphragm. Also Inflammation from surgical removal of the prostate not only affects nerves, but also may directly damage the bladder, urethra, and pelvic floor. Effective strategies to prevent this damage are currently lacking. One stratagem to prevent or minimize such damage, is the use of local hypothermia with ice or cold irrigation around the nerves and tissues prior to, during, and after the injury has occurred. In numerous experimental models of central and peripheral nervous system injury, the use of moderate hypothermia (i.e. 28-33oC) has been shown to provide dramatic neuroprotection safely in humans, during cardiac, kidney, and brain surgery for many years.

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Study Type : Observational
Actual Enrollment : 3 participants
Observational Model: Case-Only
Time Perspective: Prospective
Official Title: MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Temperature Mapping of the Prostate and Urogenital Pelvis Cooled by an Endorectal Balloon
Study Start Date : June 2013
Actual Primary Completion Date : November 2015
Actual Study Completion Date : November 2015

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MRI Mapping Group
After Subjects arrive at the MRI facility, subjects will fill out a medical questionnaire that will be used to determine whether a MRI study can be performed. The investigators will determine whether there are any problems that make the subject not suitable for participating in this study.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Describe cooling based on MRI thermal mapping in terms a) change in temperature over time at 5 locations and by b) thermal map of tissue volume at various time points [ Time Frame: One session MRI thermal mapping ]
    During pre and post hypothermia, initial temperatures will be measured simultaneously on five 3-mm-thick image slices that covered the target. The thermometry scan can be repeated every 6 s. Tissue temperature map is measured by magnetic resonance thermometry (echo planar imaging with multiphase; field of view: 25 × 25 cm; matrix 256 × 256; number of excitations: 1; repetition time: 545 ms; echo time: 20 ms; flip angle: 20°; slice thickness: 3 mm); (b) a thermal map of the tissue volume will be superimposed on the anatomical image.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Describe associations between temperature (at 5 locations) and time to continence. [ Time Frame: 30 days and 60 days after Robotic surgery ]
    Before the subject's scheduled radical prostatectomy surgery, they will have an MRI combined with an cooling endorectal balloon (this study), which will 1. Show the dimensions of their lower pelvis, including the prostate, and 2.Measure how cold the tissue around the prostate becomes using the cooling balloon. The thermal MRI images will allow elucidation of temperatures at specified anatomic locations and their changes over time. Data will be described using means for normally distributed continuous variables. We will test for associations between temperature and continence using t-tests to compare temperature change between those who achieve continence at 30 and 60 days and those who do not.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   21 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population

Healthy male volunteers (n=2) to test the MR Temperature Mapping calibration


Men who will be undergoing robotic assisted radical prostatectomy will undergo the thermal MRI scans


Inclusion Criteria:

  1. A male older than 21 years of age and under age of 80 who does not have prostate cancer and is not enrolled in UCI HS# 2008-6397 (2 male adults to test the MR Temperature Mapping calibration).

    a. CONTROLS: Option for two non-cancer adult male volunteers > 21 years old, to test MR Temperature Mapping calibration. These men are not scheduled for / will not undergo the prostatectomy and related thermometry MRI.

  2. A male older than 40 years of age who has confirmed prostate cancer and has decided to receive prostatectomy; and have enrolled in UCI HS# 2008-6397 or will be receiving the Endorectal Cooling balloon outside of UCI HS# 2008-6397 as part of a compassionate use.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Have implanted prosthetic heart valves, pacemaker, neuro-stimulation devices, surgical clips (hemostatic clips) or other metallic implants,
  2. Have engaged in occupations or activities which may cause accidental lodging of ferromagnetic materials, or have imbedded metal fragments from military activities,
  3. Have a history of renal disease and determined by the doctor not suitable for receiving injection of MR contrast agent,
  4. Unable to lie down still for 60 minutes.
  5. Woman or minor

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01979848

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United States, California
University of California, Irvine Medical Center
Orange, California, United States, 92868
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of California, Irvine
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Principal Investigator: Thomas E Ahlering, MD University of California, Irvine
Additional Information:
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Responsible Party: Thomas E. Ahlering, Vice Chairman and Urology Professor, University of California, Irvine Identifier: NCT01979848    
Other Study ID Numbers: 2012-8932
UCI 12-25 ( Other Identifier: University of California Irvine )
First Posted: November 8, 2013    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: December 13, 2016
Last Verified: December 2016
Keywords provided by Thomas E. Ahlering, University of California, Irvine:
continence outcomes
sexual function
Robotic Assisted Radical Prostatectomy
thermal imaging
localized hypothermia
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Urinary Incontinence
Erectile Dysfunction
Urination Disorders
Urologic Diseases
Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
Urological Manifestations
Mental Disorders
Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological
Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological
Body Temperature Changes