Efficacy of Propofol or Midazolam Compare to Placebo for Preoperative Medication
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01976845|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 6, 2013
Results First Posted : March 14, 2016
Last Update Posted : March 14, 2016
The purpose of this research is:
To evaluate the sedative (reduces irritability or agitation), anxiolytic (reduces anxiety), and amnesic (produces temporary lack of recall) effects of propofol or midazolam when administered for preoperative medication (before administration of drugs that will put patient to sleep) in comparison to placebo. This study is to test whether the use of the pre-anesthesia medication measurably reduces anxiety in comparison to receiving no pre-anesthesia medication prior to orthopedic procedures.
To assess the effect of propofol in comparison to placebo and midazolam on the ability to recall (memory of):
- when the doctor places the mask on patient's face prior to going to sleep
- recall of 2 pictures
- on your satisfaction with the anesthesia as well as postoperative side effects in post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) e.g., nausea ,vomiting and sedation.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Elective Orthopedic Surgery||Drug: Midazolam Drug: Propofol Drug: Saline||Phase 4|
The role of anxiolytic premedication in the ambulatory surgical population is frequently debated. Anesthesiologists may consider the administration of anxiety-reducing drugs unnecessary when anxiety levels are low in outpatients presenting for minor surgery. However, the previous study reports that up to 80% of outpatients expressed a preference for a combination of anxiety-reducing and hypnotic premedication before surgery (1-4). In addition to anxiolysis, goals of anxiolytic premedication include sedation, amnesia, improved patient cooperation, and/or improved patient satisfaction. Intravenous (IV) midazolam is the most commonly used premedicant in the ambulatory setting due to its rapid onset, and short half-life (2,3,5), but its residual effects in the immediate postoperative period may contribute to postoperative sedation, as well as to delayed recovery and discharge-readiness after brief outpatient surgery. Furthermore, White et al. (6) noted that the slope of the dose-response curve for sedation was much steeper with midazolam compared with diazepam, which suggests that midazolam may possess a smaller margin of safety and greater need for careful titration to achieve the desired clinical end-point without untoward side effects.
Propofol has become the IV (intravenous) anesthetic of choice for ambulatory anesthesia because of its excellent recovery profile (7). Clinical experience with propofol in the ambulatory setting suggests that its use is associated with less residual sedation and lower incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) (8). However, there are some undesirable side effects associated with propofol including pain on injection, cardiovascular and respiratory depression, and occasional excitement on emergence from anesthesia (9). Practically, small doses of propofol (10-20 mg IV) have been used as an anxiolytic/sedative medication.
To date, there is only one study that has evaluated propofol versus midazolam versus placebo as premedication (10). In this study, the authors stated that propofol (0.4 mg/kg IV) had anxiolytic effects comparable in magnitude and duration to midazolam (0.04 mg/kg IV) with less memory impairment, respiratory depression and dizziness. However, they did not assess the efficacy of propofol and midazolam as a premedication on the recovery profiles and patient's satisfaction in their study. Compared to placebo and propofol, midazolam was associated with more frequent respiratory depression and significant impairment of anterograde explicit memory. Both propofol and midazolam helped relieve anxiety and lowered blood pressure (compared to baseline) but both were associated with greater dizziness scores (P<0.001, compared to placebo).
They concluded that Propofol had an anxiolytic effect comparable in magnitude and duration to that of midazolam with less memory impairment, respiratory depression and dizziness.
Propofol appears to be an economical, effective and safe alternative to midazolam for treating pre-anesthesia anxiety, and especially to be used for induction of anesthesia (10). (This sentence is not clear).
Therefore, we designed this randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study to evaluate propofol as a premedication and to see if it:
- produces comparable anxiolytic effects to midazolam when compared to placebo, but with less memory impairment
- facilitates early recovery profile
- improves patient's satisfaction with the induction and early recovery from anesthesia.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||139 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)|
|Official Title:||Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Propofol or Midazolam Versus Placebo for Preoperative Medication in Patients Undergoing Elective Orthopedic Surgery|
|Study Start Date :||November 2013|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||July 2015|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||July 2015|
Propofol 20 mg IV (2 ml)
Propofol (20mg) 2 ml IV, in the pre-op area as a premedication
Other Name: Diprivan
Active Comparator: Midazolam
Midazolam 2 mg IV (2 ml)
Midazolam (20mg) 2 ml IV, in the pre-op area as a premedication
Other Name: VERSED
Placebo Comparator: Saline
Saline 2 ml
Saline 2 ml IV, in the pre-op area as a premedication
Other Name: Saline solution
- Scores on the Verbal Rating Scale For Anxiety [ Time Frame: one day ]Using the verbal rating scale (VRS) for anxiety (0= none to 10 = extremely nervous)
- Scores on the Verbal Rating Scale For Sleepiness (Sedation) [ Time Frame: one day ]Using the verbal rating scale (VRS) for anxiety (0= none to 10 = extremely sleepiness)
- Produces Amnesia(Memory Recall) [ Time Frame: one day ]
Ability to recall (memory of):
•recall of 2 pictures
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01976845
|United States, California|
|Cedars Sinai Medical center|
|Los Angeles, California, United States, 90048|
|Principal Investigator:||Ronald H Wender, MD||Cedars-Sinai Medical Center|