Primary Outcome Measures:
Secondary Outcome Measures:
- Seizure History [ Time Frame: up to 8 months ]
To obtain a seizure history on all individuals with LAMA2-MD who have had a seizure, including: type of seizures, age of seizure onset, seizure frequency, need for mechanical ventilation, seizure medications, and need for emergency room (ER) visit or hospitalization.
- Evaluation of baseline and diagnostic electroencephalograms [ Time Frame: up to 8 months ]
Both baseline and diagnostic electroencephalograms (EEG) will be obtained with patient consent from hospitals within the United States. An epileptologist will review de-identified EEG recordings to identify and classify abnormalities using a predetermined scoring system.
- Examine the association between brain MRI structural abnormalities and EEG findings [ Time Frame: up to 11 months ]
Compare the frequency of various grades of brain MRI abnormalities in individuals with LAMA2-MD with and without seizures. Identify any association between MRI abnormality and type of seizure.
LAMA2-MD is a congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) subtype caused by mutations in the laminin alpha 2 gene. LAMA2-MD may present clinically as an early onset, severe phenotype or a late onset limb girdle phenotype. The early onset form is most commonly associated with a complete absence of merosin on muscle biopsy with profound neonatal hypotonia, possible respiratory distress and feeding difficulties while the late onset form presents with proximal muscle weakness, contractures and is able to achieve walking. In both early and late onset forms, brain white matter abnormalities have been described on brain MRI and approximately 8-30% develop a seizure disorder. On magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy, white matter changes are shown to be due to increased water content rather than areas of demyelination. Both, non-ambulant and ambulant patients may develop respiratory insufficiency requiring non-invasive ventilation and scoliosis.
Although several studies have evaluated the correlation between brain MRI white matter changes and cognition, no studies to date have provided a systematic evaluation of brain imaging, electrophysiologic testing and seizures in patients identified by molecular or immunohistochemical testing to have LAMA2-MD.