Primary Outcome Measures:
- Differential radiation exposure from corresponding locations on the outside and inside of the non-lead attenuating cap. [ Time Frame: Radiation exposure has been ongoing and will be assessed upon dosimeter measurement in within 1 month by an independent radiation monitoring service. ]
Secondary Outcome Measures:
- Differential radiation exposure between the left and right sides of the heads of invasive cardiology operators. [ Time Frame: Dosimeters measurement to be read/reported within one month. ]
Device: All subjects are wearing the non-lead attenuation cap (BLOXR)
The cap is worn by all subjects with dosimeters secured both inside and outside the cap.
Other Name: Attenuating cap, BLOXR
This is a prospective study evaluating radiation exposure to operators of invasive cardiovascular procedures at the UCSD Medical Center in La Jolla. Primary and secondary operators of cardiac catheterization procedures using fluoroscopy guidance, including cardiac catheterization, coronary angiography, and interventional procedures will wear multiple dosimeters to evaluate levels of radiation exposure. The primary and secondary operators will wear six dosimeters on their heads; three outside the non-lead attenuating cap and three underneath the cap. Above and beneath the cap, the dosimeters will be on the left side, in the center, and on the right side of the head. The dosimeters will be worn for a target of at least 50 procedures for each operator. The primary operators will be closest to the procedural site and the fluoroscopy unit for the majority of the procedure, while the secondary operators will be to the right side of the primary operators during the procedures. The operators will maintain this designation while participating in the study. All operators will continue to wear the dosimeters issued by the catheterization laboratory as part of standard radiation monitoring.
Each operator will be assigned six dosimeters, which will be secured within the cap at the time of assignment. The use of each cap and respective set of dosimeters will be recorded in a log book in the secure cardiac catheterization laboratory and associated with specific cardiac case numbers. Specific factors related to operator radiation exposure for each procedure will be recorded including: operator height, patient weight and BMI, dose area product (DAP), fluoroscopy time, length of procedure, type of procedure, access site, and complexity of procedure as determined by the attending physician. The operators will comment on the comfort of the cap using a semi-quantitative scale and the levels of exposure will be measured from the dosimeters. The operators will also be asked to compare and contrast the study cap with any other attenuating or non-attenuating cap that has been previously worn. At the conclusion of the study, statistical analysis will be performed to determine the differential levels of exposure between the primary and secondary operators, between different sides of the head, and the attenuation ability of the XPF cap. The dosimeters on the outside of the cap will serve as the control in evaluating the attenuating ability of the cap compared to the corresponding dosimeters on the inside. Each dosimeter location on the outside of the cap will be compared to the other locations for both the outside and the inside sets. And finally, the exposure measurements will be compared between the primary and secondary operators for each dosimeter location. The specific factors listed above that affect operator exposure will be taken into account as well.