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A Phase I/II Safety and Efficacy Study of PCI of Gemcitabine and Chemotherapy in Patients With Cholangiocarcinomas

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01900158
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : July 16, 2013
Last Update Posted : October 29, 2019
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
PCI Biotech AS

Brief Summary:
This is a Phase I Dose Escalation Study in which the safety, tolerability and efficacy of Amphinex®--induced Photochemical Internalisation (PCI) of Gemcitabine followed by Gemcitabine/Cisplatin Chemotherapy will be assessed in patients with advanced inoperable cholangiocarcinomas.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Cholangiocarcinoma Drug: Amphinex, Gemcitabine and Cisplatin Phase 1

Detailed Description:

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an uncommon adenocarcinoma arising from the neoplastic transformation of cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining the intra-hepatic and extra-hepatic bile ducts. CCA accounts for about 3% of all digestive tumours and 10-15% of the hepatobiliary tumours. It has an annual incidence of 1-2 cases per 100,000 in the Western World, but rates of CCA have been steadily rising worldwide over the past several decades. On a global scale, CCA is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy These tumours have a poor overall survival with a 5-year survival of about 5%. Over 50% of patients present with advanced-stage disease, and the prognosis is poor with the survival of between 6-12 months for unresected patients, even after biliary decompression. CCA may arise anywhere in the biliary tree, from the small, peripheral hepatic ducts to the distal common bile duct. Commonly used classification systems utilise anatomical location to group tumours into three main categories: intra-hepatic (20-25%), perihilar (also including hilar/Klatskin tumour - 50%) and distal (20-25%).

Hilar CCA is an adenocarcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary tree arising from the main left or right hepatic ducts or their confluence. There has a been a growing recognition that hilar CCA disease actually has a distinct biological behaviour and natural history compared to that of (distal) extra-hepatic CCA, and increasing acknowledgment that different therapeutic strategies are required. At initial presentation of patients with extra-hepatic CCA, 30-50% will have local lymph node involvement and 10-20% metastatic spread typically to the liver and peritoneum. With hilar CCA due to the long asymptomatic course, only 20% are resectable at time of diagnosis.

Standard treatment options for CCA include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, dependent upon if the CCA is intra- or extra-hepatic. Tumour resection is the only potential cure for CCA. Recent advances in transplantation using stringent selection criteria and utilization of neoadjuvant chemoradiation have demonstrated encouraging results with 5 year survival rates of over 70%, with even one series from The Mayo Clinic yielding a 5-year survival rate of 82%. For the 80% who present with unresectable disease, the utility of these modalities combined with biliary decompression interventions only provided a median survival time of 3-6 months from the time of diagnosis.

For these patients with inoperable advanced CCA the main treatment aim is palliative to relieve local symptoms such as pain and jaundice. Surgery for these patients is primarily for creating a bypass in patients who cannot be stented. CCA is remarkably resistant to pharmacological therapy, but activity has been seen using chemotherapy; mainly gemcitabine given either as monotherapy or paired with either a platin derivative or a fluoropyrimidine as a doublet treatment and more recently docetaxel, these give partial response (PR) rates of 0-9% and an average survival advantage of 2-12 months. Concerning biological therapy, the ongoing studies using sorafenib, lapatinib or bevacizumab have yielded some promising results, with sorafenib demonstrating therapeutic benefit in a single arm Phase II study. For patients who are unsuitable for curative resection, the current systemic combination chemotherapy is with cisplatin plus gemcitabine. This was established in the largest randomized phase III study to date in non-operable biliary tract cancer which demonstrated a response rate of 81.4% and a median overall survival (OS) of 11.7 months; notably there was no statistically significant increase in toxicity when compared to gemcitabine monotherapy. The recent advances in interventional and endoscopic technology have seen a rise in highly specialized centres that are able to deliver very precise local control treatments aimed at gaining local control; these include local ablation and embolization, brachytherapy, radio-frequency ablation and, most significantly, photodynamic therapy which (PDT), with its favourable adverse-event profile, is recommended by most recent review articles for non-resectable patients.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 24 participants
Intervention Model: Sequential Assignment
Intervention Model Description: Phase I Dose escalation study With 4 cohorts of different doses of light and fimaporfin (Dose Escalation) plus and additional cohort With one repeated treatment of the dose selected for one treatment (Extended).
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase I/II Dose Escalation Study to Assess the Safety, Tolerability and Efficacy of Amphinex®-Induced Photochemical Internalisation (PCI) of Gemcitabine in Patients With Advanced Inoperable Cholangiocarcinomas
Actual Study Start Date : May 2013
Actual Primary Completion Date : February 2019
Actual Study Completion Date : February 2019


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Phase I
Experimental PCI treatment in dose escalation cohorts consist of Amphinex injection (at different doses) plus a single standard dose of Gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2) plus intraluminal light at the tumour area (at different doses). In addition up to 8 cycles of standard chemotherapy doses of Gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2) and Cisplatin (25 mg/m2) was provided. In the Extended part of the study (last cohort) an additional PCI treatment was introduced at Cycle 5 in the treatment Schedule.
Drug: Amphinex, Gemcitabine and Cisplatin
Amphinex administration on day 0, followed by gemcitabine administration (1000 mg/m2) and laser light application (652 nm) on day 4 followed by systemic gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2) and cisplatin (25 mg/m2) given on Day 1 and Day 8 of each 21-day cycle, for up to a total of eight cycles. Either one or two PCI treatments (Amphinex, Gemcitabine and intraluminal laser light of 652nm) during the 8 cycles of chemotherapy
Other Names:
  • Gemzar (Gemcitabine)
  • Fimaporfin (Amphinex)
  • Cisplatin




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and the safety profile [ Time Frame: up to 6 months ]

    Clinically significant toxicity or abnormal laboratory value assessed as unrelated to the underlying disease, criteria's based on the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.02:

    • Photosensitivity Grade 3 outside the treatment area, except for areas exposed for skin sensitivity tests and areas exposed for re-introduction to normal light. Patient compliance with light protection guidelines MUST be followed; noncompliance will be taken into account
    • Phototoxicity Grade 4 inside the treatment area (e.g., duodenal ulceration).
    • Non-haematological toxicity (excluding nausea and vomiting) ≥Grade 3.
    • Neutropenia or thrombocytopenia Grade 4.
    • All other Grade 3 toxicities that are clinically unexpected.

  2. Schedule-limiting toxicities (SLTs) and the safety profile [ Time Frame: up to 6 months ]

    Clinically significant toxicity or abnormal laboratory value assessed as unrelated to the underlying disease criteria's based on the NCI CTCAE version 4.02:

    • Photosensitivity Grade 3 outside the treatment area, except for areas exposed for skin sensitivity tests and areas exposed for re-introduction to normal light despite following prescribed precautions. Patient compliance with light protection guidelines MUST be followed; noncompliance will be taken into account
    • Clinically significant phototoxicity inside the treatment area (e.g., duodenal ulceration, cholangitis or pancreatitis requiring interventional radiology, operative intervention or would lead to such intervention including events that would have life-threatening consequences)
    • A toxicity of any grade that is clinically unexpected and considered related to the PCI treatment (changes to cisplatin treatment alone will not be included as part of this assessment).


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Measuring the Amphinex and Gemcitabine concentration in blood plasma [ Time Frame: Up to 8 months ]
    Cmax, Vss, T1/2, AUC and CL

  2. Progression-free survival (according to RECIST 1.1 criteria) [ Time Frame: Up to documented disease progression or death (or Database lock) ]
  3. Best Overall Response (according to RECIST 1.1 criteria) [ Time Frame: Up to Database lock ]

Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Time to re-intervention (stent patency) [ Time Frame: Up to 8 months ]
    From date of registration to reintervention

  2. Patient questionnaire and "in clinic" evaluations [ Time Frame: Up to 8 months ]
    Skin photosensitivity - protection information- testing information and events

  3. Measuring of Amphinex concentration in faeces [ Time Frame: up to 1 week after Amphinex administration ]
    Quantitative measures

  4. Local tumor response evaluation [ Time Frame: Up to 8 months ]
    Local tumour responses by assessment of radiological data



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Histopathologically/cytologically (C5) verified adenocarcinoma consistent with cholangiocarcinoma
  2. Cholangiocarcinoma that:

    • Is considered to be inoperable
    • Has a primary lesion in the perihilar biliary duct region that requires stent placement
    • Has nodal enlargement ≤ to N1 as per CT/MRI assessment
    • If has metastatic disease; this should be confined to the liver parenchyma only
  3. Adequate biliary drainage (either at least 50% of the liver volume, or at least two sectors), with no evidence of active uncontrolled infection (patients on antibiotics are eligible).
  4. Age ≥ 18 years.
  5. Performance status ECOG ≤ 1.
  6. Estimated life expectancy of at least 12 weeks.
  7. Written informed consent.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Any prior anti-cancer (either local or systemic) treatment for cholangiocarcinoma.
  2. Patients with extra-hepatic metastatic cholangiocarcinoma.
  3. Patients with a severe visceral disease other than cholangiocarcinoma.
  4. Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis.
  5. Patients with porphyria or hypersensibility to porphyrins.
  6. Patients with an active second primary cancer, with exception of adequately treated basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma or other non-melanomatous skin cancer, or in-situ carcinoma of the uterine cervix. An active second primary cancer is defined as one with a disease-free interval of < 5 years before registration/randomization.
  7. Inability to undergo CT or MRI.
  8. Current participation in any other interventional clinical trial.
  9. Male patients not willing to use adequate contraception or female patients of childbearing potential not willing to use an effective form of contraception such as hormonal birth control, intrauterine device or double barrier method during PCI treatment and subsequent chemotherapy and for at least 6 months thereafter.
  10. Breast feeding women or women with a positive pregnancy test at baseline.
  11. Inadequate bone marrow function:

    Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC): < 1.5 x 10^9/L, or platelet count < 100 x 10^9/L or haemoglobin < 6 mmol/L (transfusion allowed).

  12. Inadequate liver function, defined as:

    • Serum (total) bilirubin > 2.5 x the Upper Limit of Normal (ULN) for the institution.
    • Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST) or Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT) > 3.0 x ULN (> 5 x ULN if liver metastases are present)
    • Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels > 5.0 x ULN.
  13. Inadequate renal function, defined as:

    Creatinine clearance < 60 mL/min

  14. Planned surgery, endoscopic examination or dental treatment in the first 30 days after PCI treatment.
  15. Co-existing ophthalmic disease likely to require slit-lamp examination within the first 90 days after PCI treatment.
  16. Clinically significant and uncontrolled cardiac disease including unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction within six months prior to baseline, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmia requiring therapy, with the exception of extra systoles or minor conduction abnormalities and controlled and well treated chronic atrial fibrillation.
  17. Known allergy or sensitivity to photosensitisers.
  18. Ataxia telangiectasia.
  19. Evidence of any other medical conditions (such as psychiatric illness, infectious diseases, physical examination or laboratory findings) that may interfere with the planned PCI treatment, affect patient compliance or place the patient at high risk from treatment-related complications.
  20. Significant hearing impairment.
  21. Patients concurrently receiving phenytoin.
  22. Patients defined as vulnerable according to French law (France only)
  23. Patients using or have been using photosensitising drugs within the last 7 days (France only)
  24. Patients who have received amiodarone in the last year (France only)

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01900158


Locations
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France
CHU Angers
Angers, Maine-et-Loire, France, 49933
Germany
Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München
Munich, Bayern, Germany, 81675
Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität
München, Bayern, Germany, 81377
Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität
Frankfurt am Main, Hessen, Germany, 60590
Universitätsklinikum Essen
Essen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, 45122
Klinikum Ludwigshafen
Ludwigshafen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, D-67063
Universitätsklinikum Leipzig
Leipzig, Sachsen, Germany, 04103
Charité, Campus Mitte
Berlin, Germany, D-10117
Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus an der Technischen Universität Dresden
Dresden, Germany, 01307
Norway
Oslo Universtiy Hospital
Oslo, Norway, 0310
United Kingdom
University Hospital Aintree
Aintree, Liverpool, United Kingdom, L9 7AL
Sponsors and Collaborators
PCI Biotech AS
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Dr Richard Sturgess, MD University Hospital Aintree

Additional Information:
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Responsible Party: PCI Biotech AS
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01900158    
Other Study ID Numbers: PCI A202/12
2012-002888-10 ( EudraCT Number )
First Posted: July 16, 2013    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: October 29, 2019
Last Verified: August 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Keywords provided by PCI Biotech AS:
Phase I
CCA
Cholangiocarcinoma
bile duct cancer
klatskin
perihilar
Amphinex
Gemcitabine
Photochemical internalisation
Safety
Tolerability
Efficacy
Cisplatin
PCI
extrahepatic
local control
local tumour treatment
biliary
fimaporfin
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Cholangiocarcinoma
Adenocarcinoma
Carcinoma
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms
Gemcitabine
Cisplatin
Antineoplastic Agents
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
Antimetabolites
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Enzyme Inhibitors
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs