Double Versus Single Pledget Nasal Anesthesia for Transnasal Endoscopy
Recruitment status was: Recruiting
Unsedated ultrathin transnasal esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (UT-EGD), in comparison with conventional peroral EGD (P-EGD) has been shown to be more tolerable, safer, cost-effective and time-efficient. The investigators and in other studies have showed that nasal pledgetting (or commonly termed nasal packing) is better than nasal spray in terms of patient tolerance and visual capacity. Although pledgetting method to a selected meatus can achieve better decongestion effect, epistaxis and nasal pain in some patients are still frustrating to endoscopists.
The investigator has proposed a novel meatus scoring scale to evaluate nasal insertability by anterior rhinoscopy using a transnasal endoscope. The investigator also suggest endoscopic-guided gauze pledgetting can provide precise nasal anesthesia, thereby reducing trauma/bleeding in the nasal cavity and increasing patient tolerance during transnasal endoscopy. Endoscopic guidance to deliver a gauze strip can confirm delivering it to at least the posterior end of a turbinate. We hypothesize that by using endoscopic-guided method, gauze pledgetting to both the inferior nasal meatus (INM) and middle nasal meatus (MNM) simultaneously is more tolerable than only gauze pledgetting to a single meatus.
|Anesthesia Epistaxis||Device: Double pledget nasal anesthesia (DPNA) Device: Single pledget nasal anesthesia (SPNA)|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
|Official Title:||Double Versus Single Pledget Method of Nasal Anesthesia for Transnasal Endoscopy: A Randomized Prospective Control Study|
- The primary outcome measures are tolerability profiles on a validated visual analogue scale [ Time Frame: Immediately after transnasal endoscopy up to all questionnaires answered (about 15 minutes) ]The primary outcome measures are tolerability profiles on a validated visual analogue scale (VAS) and difficulty in inserting the transnasal endoscope through a selected meatus based on a Likert scale. The Likert scale has 5 points of difficulty: minimal, slight, moderate, substantial, and extreme. Facing a 5-point VAS card (1 = minimal discomfort to 5 = severe discomfort), all patients give real-time feedback immediately after UT-EGD by speaking or pointing out their scorings for the following: (1) pain during anesthesia, (2) pain during nasal insertions, (3) pain during exsertion, and (4) overall tolerance.
- Secondary outcome measures evaluate the side effects of nasal anesthesia [ Time Frame: The immediate secondary outcome measures will be evaluated by questionnaires immediately after UT-EGD within 15 minutes and the delayed secondary outcome measures will be evaluated by otolaryngologists within two weeks after UT-EGD. ]
Secondary outcome measures will be evaluated by assisting nurses, who record
(a) immediate responses including: (i) epistaxis, (ii) immediately post-procedural side effects including headache, light headiness, and mucous discharge, and (iii) patient's willingness to receive the same procedure the next time, and (b) delayed side effect including (i) persisting nasal discharge, (ii) epistaxis 24 hours after UT- EGD, and (iii) sinusitis all confirmed by otolaryngologists within two weeks after UT-EGD. The visual capacity for the anterior nasal cavity ranking on a 5-point scale (5 represented standard EGD and 1 poor visual quality) is also evaluated by assisting nurses during endoscopic insertion after nasal decongestive anesthesia.
|Study Start Date:||September 2012|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||February 2014|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||February 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Double pledget nasal anesthesia
All patients in the double pledget nasal anesthesia group receive endoscopic-guided gauze nasal pledgetting to both the inferior nasal meatus and middle nasal meatus. Each patient will receive an anterior rhinoscopy to select the most patent meatus by a validated meatus scoring scale. The endoscope is preloaded with a 1.8 mm biopsy forceps to pick up a right-angled gauze strip. A preloaded biopsy forceps is protruded slowly into the middle meatus first under endoscope monitoring. The second gauze pledgetting procedure is performed two minutes after the first gauze pledgetting which serves to induce turbinate size reduction to both the INT and MNT. A gauze strip is at least brought onto the posterior end of the inferior or middle turbinate.
Device: Double pledget nasal anesthesia (DPNA)
By using a transnasal endoscope as a guide and a biopsy forceps, two gauze strips soaked with decongestant and anesthesia will be delivered to the middle meatus followed by the inferior meatus under real-time transnasal endoscopic guidance.
Active Comparator: Single pledget nasal anesthesia
All patients in the single pledget nasal anesthesia group receive endoscopic-guided gauze nasal pledgetting to either the inferior nasal meatus or middle nasal meatus determined by anterior rhinoscopy. Each patient will receive an anterior rhinoscopy to select the most patent meatus by a validated meatus scoring scale. The endoscope is preloaded with a 1.8 mm biopsy forceps to pick up a right-angled gauze strip. A gauze strip is at least brought onto the posterior end of the inferior or middle turbinate.
Device: Single pledget nasal anesthesia (SPNA)
Another randomized group of patients will also receive endoscopic-guided gauze pledgetting using a transnasal endoscope as a guide and a biopsy forceps. One gauze strip soaked with decongestant and anesthesia will be delivered to either the middle meatus or inferior meatus determined by anterior rhinoscopy.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01886768
|Contact: Chi-Tan Hu, MD, PhDemail@example.com|
|Buddhist Tzu Chi Hospital||Recruiting|
|Hualien City, Hualien county, Taiwan, 970|
|Contact: Chi-Tan Hu, MD, PhD +886933995773 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Principal Investigator:||Chi-Tan Hu||Budhist Tzu Chi Hospital and Tzu Chi University|