Evaluation of Green Dot a Primary Prevention Intervention
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the statewide application of Green Dot among high schools students. We hypothesize that students in high schools with Green Dot will over time report lower rates of sexual violence (SV) compared with students in comparable high schools randomized not to have Green Dot. This reduction in sexual violence will be mediated through a reduction in social norms supporting sexual violence (measured with violence acceptance scales) and an increase in bystander behaviors.
|Study Design:||Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Prevention
|Official Title:||Green Dot Across the Bluegrass: Evaluation of a Primary Prevention Intervention|
- Sexual Violence Victimization and Perpetration [ Time Frame: Survey all students in each high school between February - May- 2010-2014 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
3 items measuring sexual violence victimization and 3 items measuring sexual violence perpetration. Items address attempted or complete forced sexual activity; unwanted sex due to being too drunk or drugged to consent; coerced sexual activity.
These measures were based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS).
5 items addressing reproductive coercion were included (victimization only). These items were based on research by Miller, Elizabeth, Michele R. Decker, Heather L. McCauley, Daniel J. Tancredi, Rebecca R. Levenson, Jeffrey Waldman, Phyllis Schoenwald, and Jay G. Silverman. "Pregnancy Coercion, Intimate Partner Violence and Unintended Pregnancy." Contraception 81.4 (2010): 316-22.
3 items addressing sexual harassment were also included and asked as both victimization and perpetration.
- Increase in bystanding behaviors [ Time Frame: Annual measures violence at baseline (pre-intervention) and 4 years post intervention ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
7 items measuring self-reports of students actively engaging their peers in behaviors that may prevent violence.
Response options: 0 times, 1-2 times, 3-5 times, 6-9 times, 10 or more times, didn't see or hear someone doing this
- Tell someone to stop talking down to, harassing, or messing with someone else.
- Speak up when you heard that someone who was forced to have sex or hurt by a boyfriend/girlfriend was to blame.
- Talk to a friend who was being physically hurt by a boyfriend/girlfriend.
- Ask someone that looked very upset at a party if they were okay or needed help.
- Ask a friend if they needed to be walked or driven home from a party if they looked upset.
- Spoke up to someone who was bragging or making excuses for forcing someone to have sex with them.
- Got help for a friend because they had been forced to have sex or were physically hurt by a boyfriend/girlfriend.
Above items repeated to measure student observing others doing these behaviors.
- Violence acceptance [ Time Frame: Annual measures violence at baseline (pre-intervention) and 4 years post intervention ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Two measures used: Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale measure students' beliefs about rape which may indicate social norms supporting sexual violence. 5-item Acceptance of General Dating Violence Scale(21) was used to measure norms supporting dating violence.
- Social Networks [ Time Frame: Annual measures violence at baseline (pre-intervention) and 4 years post intervention ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Measure of how the bystander intervention is diffused throughout student social networks. Each trained student provides the names of 5 friends / acquaintances. Analyses measures the numbers of students indirectly receiving training via trained student. Panel surveys also measure impact of diffusion through observing others' bystanding behaviors
|Study Start Date:||November 2009|
|Study Completion Date:||May 2014|
|Primary Completion Date:||May 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Green Dot Bystander Training
26 high schools: 13 receiving Green Dot intervention and 13 no intervention
Behavioral: Green Dot Bystander Intevention
Intervention allocated at the school level
"Green Dot" is a bystander intervention program that empowers students to actively question peer support for sexual violence (SV) and become change agents who play a significant role in preventing sexual violence. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the statewide application of Green Dot among high schools students. We hypothesize that students in high schools with Green Dot will over time report lower rates of SV compared with students in comparable high schools randomized not to have Green Dot. A high school based controlled intervention trial is being used to test the efficacy of Green Dot. Both panel and cohort survey methods will be used to provide baseline and prospective data on student's attitudes supporting SV, bystander behaviors and violence victimization and perpetration. In 13 Kentucky regions, 2 demographically comparable high schools were recruited to participate in Green Dot intervention either as the intervention or control site. Schools were randomly assigned to the intervention. Study Population includes all students in participating high schools invited to complete anonymous panel surveys beginning spring 2010 through 2014. This state-wide, population-based, multi-site controlled intervention trial provides an empirical test of a promising intervention, which, if proven effective, could result in the primary prevention of SV and a reduction in the health and academic consequences of SV.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01878097
|United States, Kentucky|
|University of Kentucky|
|Lexington, Kentucky, United States, 40536-0293|
|Principal Investigator:||Ann L. Coker, PhD||University of Kentucky|