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Evaluation of Green Dot a Primary Prevention Intervention

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Ann Coker, University of Kentucky
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01878097
First received: March 29, 2013
Last updated: August 3, 2017
Last verified: August 2017
  Purpose
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the statewide application of Green Dot among high schools students. We hypothesize that students in high schools with Green Dot will over time report lower rates of sexual violence (SV) compared with students in comparable high schools randomized not to have Green Dot. This reduction in sexual violence will be mediated through a reduction in social norms supporting sexual violence (measured with violence acceptance scales) and an increase in bystander behaviors.

Condition Intervention
Sex Offenses Behavioral: Green Dot Bystander Intevention Behavioral: Control

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Green Dot Across the Bluegrass: Evaluation of a Primary Prevention Intervention

Further study details as provided by Ann Coker, University of Kentucky:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Average Number of Sexual Assault Events Used (Perpetrated) Per School. [ Time Frame: over 5 years with baseline intervention ]
    Students self report of sexual assault perpetration averaged at the school level and adjusted for baseline and number of students. Adjustments were made by including baseline measure and number of students as a covariate in the model.

  • Average Number of Sexual Assaults Experienced (Victimization) Events Per School. [ Time Frame: over 5 years with baseline intervention ]
    Students self report of sexual assault victimization averaged at the school level and adjusted for baseline and number of students. Adjustments made by including baseline measure and number of students as covariates in models.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Increase in Bystanding Behaviors [ Time Frame: Annual measures violence at baseline (pre-intervention) and 4 years post intervention ]

    7 items measuring self-reports of students actively engaging their peers in behaviors that may prevent violence.

    Response options: 0 times, 1-2 times, 3-5 times, 6-9 times, 10 or more times, didn't see or hear someone doing this

    1. Tell someone to stop talking down to, harassing, or messing with someone else.
    2. Speak up when you heard that someone who was forced to have sex or hurt by a boyfriend/girlfriend was to blame.
    3. Talk to a friend who was being physically hurt by a boyfriend/girlfriend.
    4. Ask someone that looked very upset at a party if they were okay or needed help.
    5. Ask a friend if they needed to be walked or driven home from a party if they looked upset.
    6. Spoke up to someone who was bragging or making excuses for forcing someone to have sex with them.
    7. Got help for a friend because they had been forced to have sex or were physically hurt by a boyfriend/girlfriend.

    Above items repeated to measure student observing others doing these behaviors.


  • Violence Acceptance [ Time Frame: Annual measures violence at baseline (pre-intervention) and 4 years post intervention ]
    Two measures used: Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale measure students' beliefs about rape which may indicate social norms supporting sexual violence. 5-item Acceptance of General Dating Violence Scale(21) was used to measure norms supporting dating violence.

  • Social Networks [ Time Frame: Annual measures violence at baseline (pre-intervention) and 4 years post intervention ]
    Measure of how the bystander intervention is diffused throughout student social networks. Each trained student provides the names of 5 friends / acquaintances. Analyses measures the numbers of students indirectly receiving training via trained student. Panel surveys also measure impact of diffusion through observing others' bystanding behaviors


Enrollment: 89707
Study Start Date: November 2009
Study Completion Date: May 2014
Primary Completion Date: May 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Green Dot Bystander Training
Green Dot intervention
Behavioral: Green Dot Bystander Intevention
Intervention allocated at the school level
Active Comparator: Control
Awareness Eduation
Behavioral: Control
Awareness Education

Detailed Description:
"Green Dot" is a bystander intervention program that empowers students to actively question peer support for sexual violence (SV) and become change agents who play a significant role in preventing sexual violence. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the statewide application of Green Dot among high schools students. We hypothesize that students in high schools with Green Dot will over time report lower rates of SV compared with students in comparable high schools randomized not to have Green Dot. A high school based controlled intervention trial is being used to test the efficacy of Green Dot. Both panel and cohort survey methods will be used to provide baseline and prospective data on student's attitudes supporting SV, bystander behaviors and violence victimization and perpetration. In 13 Kentucky regions, 2 demographically comparable high schools were recruited to participate in Green Dot intervention either as the intervention or control site. Schools were randomly assigned to the intervention. Study Population includes all students in participating high schools invited to complete anonymous panel surveys beginning spring 2010 through 2014. This state-wide, population-based, multi-site controlled intervention trial provides an empirical test of a promising intervention, which, if proven effective, could result in the primary prevention of SV and a reduction in the health and academic consequences of SV.
  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   14 Years to 19 Years   (Child, Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

Only high school students attending the intervention or comparison high schools will be eligible. Two groups will be recruited: those receiving bystanding training and those not receiving such training who may or may not be in the social network of those receiving bystanding training.

Exclusion Criteria:

All other high school students in Kentucky

  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01878097

Locations
United States, Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky, United States, 40536-0293
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Kentucky
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Ann L. Coker, PhD University of Kentucky
  More Information

Publications:
Responsible Party: Ann Coker, Professor and Endowed Chair, University of Kentucky
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01878097     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 5U01CE001675 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
Study First Received: March 29, 2013
Results First Received: March 29, 2017
Last Updated: August 3, 2017

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on September 19, 2017