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Effectiveness of a Parental Training Programme to Enhance Parent-child Relationship and Reduce Harsh Parenting Practices and Parental Stress in the Preparation of Children for Transition to Primary School

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01845948
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 3, 2013
Last Update Posted : May 3, 2013
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Dr. LI William Ho Cheung, The University of Hong Kong

Brief Summary:
This study tested the effectiveness of a parental training programme to enhance parent-child relationship and reduce harsh parenting practices and parental stress in the preparation of children for transition to primary school. A randomized controlled trial was employed and 142 parents were recruited. Parents in the experimental group engaged in less harsh parenting practices and reported better parent-child relationships than parents in the control group. Findings from this study provide empirical evidence of the effectiveness of the parental training programme and highlight the significance of parental involvement in promoting a smooth transition for children from kindergarten to primary one.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Parent Behavioral: parental training programme Behavioral: Placebo Control Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Introduction Transition creates a time of vulnerability for the child, the parents and their relationship. Failure to adjust to the transition, on the part of either parents or children, might place the family in a psychological devastating position. There is an imperative need to develop and evaluate appropriate interventions for parents so that they can contribute to helping their children enjoy a smooth passage to a pleasurable learning life in primary school.

Aim The aims of this study were to test the effectiveness of a parental training programme to enhance parent-child relationship and reduce harsh parenting practices and parental stress in the preparation of children for transition to primary school.

Methods A randomized controlled trial, two-group pre-test and repeated post-test, between-subjects design was employed. The method of simple complete randomization was adopted. Recruitment and data collection were conducted during the summer in 2009. Participants were recruited through referrals from the Hong Kong Sheung Kung Hui Welfare Council in Tung Chung. Written consent was obtained from parents after they were told the purposes of the study and agreed to participate. Parents were told that they were under no obligation to participate, could withdraw from the study with impunity at any time and were assured of the confidentiality of the data to be collected.

After they had signed consent forms, a research assistant collected demographic and baseline data from parents. Data collection was divided into three phases: at the time of recruitment (pre-intervention), at six weeks and three months after the intervention. Parents were asked to respond to the Chinese version of the parental acceptance-rejection scale, parental stress scale, and self-report scale on parent-child relationship in respect of the transition from kindergarten to primary school.


Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 142 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Supportive Care
Official Title: Effectiveness of a Parental Training Programme to Enhance Parent-child Relationship and Reduce Harsh Parenting Practices and Parental Stress in the Preparation of Children for Transition to Primary School: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Study Start Date : March 2009
Actual Primary Completion Date : September 2009
Actual Study Completion Date : December 2009

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Parenting

Arm Intervention/treatment
Placebo Comparator: Placebo Control
Parents had no intervention except that an information leaflet for parents on helping children to adapt the new primary school life published by Education Bureau was given to each parent in the control group at the end of data collection.
Behavioral: Placebo Control
Parents had no intervention except that an information leaflet for parents on helping children to adapt the new primary school life published by Education Bureau was given to each parent in the control group at the end of data collection.

Experimental: parental training programme
The parental training programme was run in small groups of 8 to 12 parents over four consecutive weeks. They consisted of four group sessions, each lasting about two hours. The major focus of the parental intervention included teaching parents: (1) to use more active listening skills, (2) to engage less in harsh parenting practices, (3) to use more praise and encouragement and (4) to set reasonable expectations in the rearing of their children. Each session was started with revision of skills or concepts discussed in previous sessions, therefore, each session built on the previous session.
Behavioral: parental training programme
In the experimental group, parents participated in the parental training programme approximately one month before the start of the academic year in primary school. Two social workers, who have minimum five- year experience in giving family counselling,implemented the interventions.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change of Self-reported Parent-Child Relationship at 6 weeks from baseline [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ]
    The parent-child relationship of the participants was measured by using a self-reporting method consisting of two items, with one asking 'How satisfied are you with the parent-child relationship?" and the other 'As a parent, how satisfied are you with yourself?'


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Self-reported Parent-Child Relationship at baseline [ Time Frame: baseline, 0 week ( just before the start of intervention) ]
    The parent-child relationship of the participants was measured by using a self-reporting method consisting of two items, with one asking 'How satisfied are you with the parent-child relationship?" and the other 'As a parent, how satisfied are you with yourself?'

  2. Change of Self-reported Parent-Child Relationship at 3 months from baseline [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    The parent-child relationship of the participants was measured by using a self-reporting method consisting of two items, with one asking 'How satisfied are you with the parent-child relationship?" and the other 'As a parent, how satisfied are you with yourself?'

  3. Perceived Parental Aggression Scale at baseline [ Time Frame: baseline, 0 week ( just before the start of intervention) ]
    It measures harsh parenting, i.e. physical or verbal aggression towards children

  4. change of Perceived Parental Aggression Scale at 6 weeks from baseline [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ]
    It measures harsh parenting, i.e. physical or verbal aggression towards children

  5. change of Perceived Parental Aggression Scale at 3 months from baseline [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    It measures harsh parenting, i.e. physical or verbal aggression towards children

  6. Parental Stress at baseline [ Time Frame: baseline, 0 week ( just before the start of intervention) ]
    we assess a parent's subjective feelings of strain, difficulty and dissatisfaction in reaction to stressors in the parent-child relationship

  7. change of Parental Stress at baseline at 6 weeks from baseline [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ]
    we assess a parent's subjective feelings of strain, difficulty and dissatisfaction in reaction to stressors in the parent-child relationship

  8. change of Parental Stress at baseline at 3 months from baseline [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    we assess a parent's subjective feelings of strain, difficulty and dissatisfaction in reaction to stressors in the parent-child relationship



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Ages Eligible for Study:   Child, Adult, Older Adult
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • must be able to read and write Chinese
  • must have had primary school education or above

Exclusion Criteria:

  • with identified cognitive and learning problems were excluded, as also were children with such problems

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01845948


Locations
China
Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui Tung Chung Integrated Services
Hong Kong, China
Sponsors and Collaborators
The University of Hong Kong
Investigators
Principal Investigator: William Ho Cheung Li, PhD The School of Nursing, The University of Hong Kong

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Dr. LI William Ho Cheung, Assistant Professor, The University of Hong Kong
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01845948     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: ND789
First Posted: May 3, 2013    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: May 3, 2013
Last Verified: April 2013

Keywords provided by Dr. LI William Ho Cheung, The University of Hong Kong:
parents
school transition
parental-child relationship