Serum Biomarker of Plaque Vulnerability and Contrast Ultrasound of Carotid Artery
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No serum biomarker has qualified for clinical use until now. However several biomarkers, especially markers of inflammatory or proteolytic activity seem to promising in the identification of vulnerable plaques. Moreover, recent study confirmed that contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging(CEUS) can visualize intraplaque neovascularization and represent the plaque vulnerability. In this study we try to identify indicators through analysis of the relationship between plaque neovascularization seen by CEUS and well known biomarkers such as serum matrix metalloproteinase(MMP)-2, MMP-9, cathepsin family(L,S,V), cystatin C, lipoprotein phospholipase A2, and hs-crp
Condition or disease
Intraplaque Neovascularization Evaluated by Carotid Enhanced Ultrasound Well Reflect the Plaque Vulnerability
Peak plasma concentration of Biomarker that is statistically significant different according to the presence of intraplaque neovascularization on contrast enhanced ultrasound of carotid artery [ Time Frame: after performing contrast enhanced ultrasound of carotid artery, upto 3 hospital days ]
Secondary Outcome Measures :
the number of the patients with history of cardiovascular event including myocardial infarction, cerebral vascular event and peripheral arterial disease and the number of 1 year clinical outcome of cardiovascular event [ Time Frame: after performing contrast enhanced ultrasound of carotid artery, upto 1 year clinical follow up ]
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Ages Eligible for Study:
Child, Adult, Senior
Sexes Eligible for Study:
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:
The patients were selected from those who admitted due to chest pain and underwent carotid duplex ultrasound examination at KyungHee university medical center, Seoul, South Korea.
patients with carotid plaques size more than 2mm by carotid ultrasound
known allergy to albumin, or to the ultrasound contrast agent
the patients with history of carotid endarterectomy and carotid stent
acute myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock
connective tissue disease and malignancy
creatinine clearance lower than 30ml/min and the history of dialysis