A Multicenter Research on the Effects of Substitution of Hospital Ward Care From Medical Doctors to Physician Assistants
Reallocation of healthcare is one solution to the problems healthcare is facing. In the Netherlands reallocation of care to Physician Assistants (PAs) hasn't adequately been studied. Given the growing number of PAs, it is essential to evaluate the effectiveness and efficacy of (Dutch) PA services.
This multicenter matched-controlled study aims to evaluate the (cost) effectiveness of substitution of hospital ward care from medical doctors (MDs) to PAs. The traditional model in which the role of house officer is taken by medical doctors MD model) will be compared with a mixed model in which a PA functions as house officer together with a medical doctor (PA/MD model). Hospital wards will be matched on medical specialism and hospital type (i.e. academic;non-academic). On the basis of USA studies, it is hypothesized that the mixed PA/MD model compared to the MD model reduces the costs of healthcare, while improving or maintaining the clinical outcomes, patients and provider satisfaction, and continuity and quality of care.
Primary research question:
• What is the effect of 'mixed PA/MD model' compared with 'MD model' on efficiency of care?
Secondary research questions:
- What is the effect of 'mixed PA/MD model' compared with 'MD model' on clinical and patients outcomes?
- What is the effect of 'mixed PA/MD model' compared with 'MD model' on continuity of care?
- What is the effect of 'mixed PA/MD model' compared with 'MD model' on nurses and (specialist) medicals doctor experiences?
- What are the barriers and facilitating factors considering the implementation of PAs as house officer?
|Study Design:||Time Perspective: Prospective|
|Official Title:||Worthy Assistants: Does Substituting Hospital Ward Care From Medical Residents to Physician Assistants Result in Cost Savings?|
- Length of hospital stay [ Time Frame: Patients will be followed for the duration of hospital stay; an expected average of 6 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]The difference between date of discharge and date of admission
- Efficiency of care [ Time Frame: Patients will be followed from hospital admission till 1 month after discharge; an expected average of 1 month and 6 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Relevant costs associated with the principal admission (length of hospital stay, resource use, consultation of health care suppliers, salaries) and costs that occurred after discharge (unplanned readmission, presentation at emergency departments, visits of general practitioner, required home care) will be calculated, considering a follow-up period from admission until 1 month after discharge. All volumes will be collected in detail at an individual patient level, primarily from medical patient records and patient and care provider questionnaires. Medical costs will be calculated by multiplying the volumes of healthcare use with corresponding unit prices, derived from the Dutch Manual for Costing Research
- Quality of hospital ward care [ Time Frame: Patients will be followed from hospital admission till 1 month after discharge; an expected average of 1 month and 6 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]To estimate the quality of ward care, a set of objective indicators has been developed through literature review and clinical input from a physician panel. We have selected both clinical indicators and process indicators, with a follow-up period of maximum 1 month after discharge. Clinical indicators were based on the national set of indicators for quality of hospital care from the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate (IGZ) and consider the incidences of inhospital mortality, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, unplanned readmission, presentation at emergency department after discharge,unplanned transfer to Intensive Care Unit, development of hospital infections, pressure sore and fever, and pain scores . Process indicators are the number of days between a patients discharge and the date of written turnover to general practitioner or other hospital, and acquaintance with the patient within 24 hours after admission
- Patient quality of life [ Time Frame: Patients will be followed from hospital admission till 1 month after discharge; an expected average of 1 month and 6 days. Measurements of quality of life will be performed at hospital admission, hospital discharge and 1 month after discharge ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Patient experienced quality of life will be measured by the EQ-5D questionnaire. This questionnaire will be distributed at hospital admission, hospital discharge, and 1 month after discharge
- Feasibility, barriers and facilitators [ Time Frame: 12 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Semi-structured (group)interviews will be held with PAs, (specialized) medical doctors, ward nurses and heads of the departments. The interviews will cover experiences with the utilized ward model, communication between professionals, satisfaction, and barriers and facilitators related to the utilization of the 'mixed PA/MD model'. Specific attention will be paid to the role and functioning of PAs
- Care provider experiences [ Time Frame: 12 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
Job satisfaction, subjective workload and stress reaction of PAs, (specialized) medical doctors and ward nurses will be measured by a self-administered questionnaire. Job satisfaction will be measured by an adapted version of the job satisfaction questionnaire of McCranie, stress reaction will be measured by a short version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12)
Objective workload will be measured by calculating the ratio between number of working hours at the hospital ward, and the number of patients the PA or medical doctor is responsible for.
- Continuity of care [ Time Frame: 4 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Continuity of care will be measured by deriving the number of rotations of PAs and medical doctors at the hospital ward from work schedules, which will be assessed during 4 weeks, spread over 4 months
- Patient experiences with hospital ward care [ Time Frame: Patients will be followed for the duration of hospital stay; an expected average of 6 days. Measurement of patient experiences will be performed at discharge ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Patient experiences with medical ward care will be assessed by a self-administered questionnaire at discharge. This questionnaire focuses on satisfaction with communication, experienced continuity of care and cooperation, and the patients view on the medical competencies of the ward care provider
|Study Start Date:||April 2013|
|Study Completion Date:||May 2015|
|Primary Completion Date:||May 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Hospital wards at which ward care is provided only by Medical Doctors (MDs)
Hospital wards at which ward care is provided by both Physician Assistants (PAs) and Medical Doctors (MDs)
Other: PA/MD model
Intervention wards are hospital wards at which ward care is provided by both Physician Assistants (PAs) and Medical Doctors (MDs)
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01835444
|Emmen, Drenthe, Netherlands|
|Heerenveen, Friesland, Netherlands, 8441 PW|
|Apeldoorn, Gelderland, Netherlands|
|Arnhem, Gelderland, Netherlands, 6800 TA|
|Doetinchem, Gelderland, Netherlands|
|Ziekenhuis de Gelderse Vallei|
|Ede, Gelderland, Netherlands|
|Canisius Wilhelmina ziekenhuis|
|Nijmegen, Gelderland, Netherlands, 6532 SZ|
|Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre|
|Nijmegen, Gelderland, Netherlands, 6500HB|
|Streekziekenhuis Koningin Beatrix|
|Winterswijk, Gelderland, Netherlands|
|Roermond, Limburg, Netherlands|
|Roermond, Limburg, Netherlands, 6043 CV|
|Orbis Medisch Centrum|
|Sittard, Limburg, Netherlands|
|VieCuri Medical Center|
|Venlo, Limburg, Netherlands, 5912 BL|
|Bergen op Zoom, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands, 4624 VT|
|Jeroen Bosch Ziekenhuis|
|Den Bosch, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands|
|Helmond, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands|
|Roosendaal, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands, 4708 AE|
|St. Elisabeth Ziekenhuis|
|Tilburg, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands|
|Tilburg, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands|
|Van Weel Bethesda Ziekenhuis|
|Dirksland, Zeeland, Netherlands|
|Reinier de Graaf Gasthuis|
|Delft, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands|
|Den Haag, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands|
|Medisch Centrum Haaglanden|
|Den Haag, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands|
|Principal Investigator:||M.G.H. Laurant, PhD||IQ healthcare, UMC St Radboud|