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Individual vs. Group Community Reinforcement Training to Help Parents of Substance-using Treatment-refusing Youth (POP)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01829789
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : April 11, 2013
Last Update Posted : September 30, 2016
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Oregon Research Institute

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to test the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of Community Reinforcement Training (CRT) provided in a group therapy format. The goals of CRT are to teach parents behavioral and communication skills to influence their youth's drug use and encourage them to enter treatment. Thirty parents will be randomly assigned to Group CRT and 30 will be randomly assigned to traditional, Individual CRT. Youth engaged in treatment will receive individual Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Families are assessed for adolescent substance use and other areas of individual and family functioning. It is expected that Group CRT will be more effective for encouraging youth entry into treatment and improving parental functioning.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Substance Use Disorders Treatment Refusal Behavioral: Group Community Reinforcement Training for Parents Behavioral: Individual Community Reinforcement Training for Parents Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Very few youth with drug abuse or dependence in the United States receive treatment. This population of untreated youth represents a massive "treatment gap" in adolescent health care that renders impotent a potentially important avenue for preventing chronic drug abuse and related difficulties. The lack of motivation for treatment characterizing most adolescent drug abusers significantly decreases the likelihood these youth will enter treatment, barring mandates from the legal system or other social institutions. Efficacy studies have demonstrated that Community Reinforcement Training (CRT), an approach that involves teaching parents how to engage their youth into treatment, can work to recruit 60-80% of these treatment-elusive youth. CRT is traditionally provided in an individual therapy format to one or both parents. This study will improve upon our prior work by using a group format to provide a less costly procedure for engaging youth into treatment and to make it more portable to treatment agencies, schools, juvenile justice, and other community organizations seeking to offer support to parents or engage youth in treatment, thus significantly increasing the adoption and sustainability of the approach.

This study will examine the efficacy of the group format (G-CRT) for helping parents engage their unmotivated, resistant youth in treatment compared to the traditional individual format (I-CRT). Parents (n = 60) will be randomly assigned to G-CRT or to I-CRT. We will evaluate the differential efficacy of G-CRT, relative to I-CRT, on rates of adolescent engagement in treatment. We expect that G-CRT, compared to I-CRT, will also be associated with greater parent encouragement of adolescent sobriety, perceived social support, and family functioning. We also predict that changes on these process variables will predict increased success in engaging adolescents. We will also examine treatment outcomes for youth engaged in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as a function of parental involvement in G-CRT or I-CRT. We predict enhanced support received by parents in G-CRT will result in greater reductions in drug use and lower levels of HIV-risk behaviors, outcomes hypothesized to be mediated by motivation to change and sessions attendance. Finally, we will conduct an informal cost-effectiveness analysis to derive preliminary estimates of the relative costs of each treatment modality per outcome unit and hypothesize that G-CRT will be more cost effective than I-CRT by virtue of having higher clinical effectiveness and lower costs. Successful outcomes here will provide the basis for a full clinical trial with larger samples.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 60 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Group Community Reinforcement Training for Parents of Treatment-Elusive Youth
Study Start Date : April 2013
Actual Primary Completion Date : November 2015
Actual Study Completion Date : March 2016

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: G-CRT
Group Community Reinforcement Training for parents
Behavioral: Group Community Reinforcement Training for Parents
Other Name: G-CRT

Active Comparator: I-CRT
Individual Community Reinforcement Training for parents
Behavioral: Individual Community Reinforcement Training for Parents
Other Name: I-CRT

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Adolescent treatment engagement [ Time Frame: 4 months ]
    An adolescent may enter the CBT treatment program ("treatment engagement") at any point during the 4-month time period after his or her parents begin I-CRT or G-CRT therapy.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Timeline Followback (TLFB) interview [ Time Frame: 9 months ]
    The TLFB is an interview to assess the quantity, frequency, and pattern of illicit substance use. Parents provide collateral data on their adolescents' substance use in the 3 months prior to enrollment. Adolescents report on their own substance use for the 3 months prior to their parents' enrollment through 6 months after enrollment.

Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Medical Outcome Studies Social Support Survey [ Time Frame: 9 months ]
    The MOS consists of four support subscales (Emotional/Informational, Tangible, Affectionate, and Positive Social) and an overall functional social support index. This measure will be completed by parents at baseline (about the 3 months prior to enrollment) and at 3- and 6-month follow-up points. It will be used to compare perceived social support for parents in the G-CRT versus I-CRT interventions.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   Child, Adult, Older Adult
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Parents have an adolescent between 15-20 years
  • Parents have had contact with the adolescent on at least 40% of the past 12 weeks
  • Parents have some knowledge or evidence that the adolescent would meet DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for a substance use disorder
  • Adolescent has explicitly refused to attend any intake or therapy sessions
  • Adolescent is not under a current court mandate for treatment or has refused to comply with the mandate
  • English-speaking capability (parents and adolescents)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Evidence of adolescent psychotic or organic state of sufficient severity to interfere with understanding of study instruments and procedures
  • Adolescent had received drug treatment (except detoxification) in the past 12 weeks.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01829789

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United States, Oregon
Center for Family and Adolescent Research
Portland, Oregon, United States, 97232
Sponsors and Collaborators
Oregon Research Institute
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Principal Investigator: Erica M Finstad, Ph.D. Oregon Research Institute
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Responsible Party: Oregon Research Institute Identifier: NCT01829789    
Other Study ID Numbers: 1R34DA034301 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: April 11, 2013    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: September 30, 2016
Last Verified: September 2016
Keywords provided by Oregon Research Institute:
Substance Abuse
Treatment Efficacy
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Substance-Related Disorders
Chemically-Induced Disorders
Mental Disorders