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Transmission Reduction and Prevention With HPV Vaccination (TRAP-HPV) Study (TRAP-HPV)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01824537
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : April 4, 2013
Last Update Posted : May 4, 2018
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Dr. Eduardo Franco, McGill University

Brief Summary:
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a member of the Papillomaviridae family of DNA viruses that is capable of infecting humans. HPV infection can cause cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and anus in women or cancers of the anus and penis in men. Two prophylactic vaccines have been proven to be highly effective in preventing the acquisition of HPV infection and the genital precancerous lesions caused by it. However, we do not know yet if a previously infected individual, once vaccinated, would be less infective to her or his sexual partner. We plan to conduct a study, called Transmission Reduction And Prevention with HPV vaccination (TRAP-HPV) study to answer this question. It will include 500 sexually active couples (total of 1000 individuals) in university student health clinics in Montreal (age 18-45 years). It will be a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention trial. Study participants will be followed up to 12 months. Behavioural and biological data will be collected at the time of study enrolment, then at months 2, 4, 6, 9 and 12 post-enrolment. The results of this trial will be invaluable in informing policies regarding vaccination of women and men.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Human Papillomavirus Infection Biological: HPV vaccine, Gardasil 9 Biological: Hepatitis A vaccine Phase 4

Detailed Description:

Two prophylactic vaccines (Gardasil by Merck, and Cervarix by GlaxoSmithKline) have been proven in randomized controlled trials (RCT) to be highly effective in preventing infection against the target HPV types (HPV-6, 11, 16 and18, for Gardasil, and HPV-16/18, for Cervarix) and the cervical precancerous lesions caused by them. These vaccines have shifted the paradigm of prevention and are expected to have a major impact in reducing the burden of cervical cancer and of other HPV-associated malignancies, such as vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, as well as benign HPV-associated conditions (in the case of Gardasil), such as anogenital warts and respiratory papillomatosis. However, little is known about the extent with which vaccination may reduce transmission between sexual partners; i.e. much remains to be understood on the effects of HPV vaccine in preventing transmission of target HPV types to sexual partners of vaccinated individuals and its impact on herd immunity.

The investigators propose to conduct a placebo-controlled, double-blinded RCT to measure the impact of vaccination in preventing HPV transmission within young (age 18-45) heterosexual couples at McGill and Concordia Universities in Montreal, Canada. Individual partners in 500 couples will be randomized to a treatment (Gardasil 9) or a control vaccine (Havrix, a hepatitis A vaccine). This control vaccine provides a similar health benefit incentive as HPV vaccination while preserving the scientific cogency of a "placebo" comparator. Risk factor data will be collected via computerized questionnaires at enrolment (time 0), 2, 4, 6, 9 and 12 months. At all time points, the investigators will measure HPV DNA infection status by PCR in both partners in exfoliated penile, and oral samples from men and vaginal, oral samples from women. Assessing pre-enrolment humoral immune response to HPV infection with a competitive Luminex immunoassay (CLIA) will be done in an enrolment blood sample from all study participants.

The primary outcome will be the reduction of HPV DNA positivity for the target HPV vaccine types (types 6, 11, 16 and 18) in multiple anatomic sites in Havrix-treated sexual partners of participants who received Gardasil 9. The investigators hypothesize that HPV vaccination is effective in reducing the risk of HPV transmission to their sexual partners. They will use the Kaplan-Meier technique and logrank tests to compare the cumulative probability of HPV infection in sexual partners of vaccinated versus unvaccinated individuals against follow-up time, and Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the effect of vaccination and other covariates on transmission of HPV to sexual partners. Statistical analyses will follow an intention-to-treat approach but additional regression models will examine the role of several candidate determinants in mediating transmission and the protective effects. Mixed-effects models will also be used to take advantage of the repeated measurements across visits, HPV types, and anatomical sites for the same subject.

In addition to the findings on protection to unvaccinated partners, it is expected that this study will provide valuable insights as to whether protection may exist for a vaccine recipient in preventing infection in an anatomical site in which a target type has not yet established infection. These findings will generate key parameter data to inform the extent of herd immunity in cost-effectiveness models of HPV vaccination. Such models are essential to arrive at rational science-driven policies of HPV vaccination in girls and boys in Canada.

(full protocol available upon request)

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 1000 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Transmission Reduction and Prevention With HPV Vaccination (TRAP-HPV) Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Efficacy of HPV Vaccination in Preventing Transmission of HPV Infection in Heterosexual Couples
Study Start Date : September 2013
Estimated Primary Completion Date : September 2019
Estimated Study Completion Date : September 2020

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Hepatitis A

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: HPV vaccine, Gardasil 9
HPV vaccine intervention: The intervention vaccine will be Gardasil 9, a 9-valent vaccine by Merck. This vaccine was chosen because it allows for the observation of 9 HPV outcomes (HPV 6, 11, 16 and18) (the other available vaccine, Cervarix, protects against HPVs 16 and 18, only).
Biological: HPV vaccine, Gardasil 9
Once recruited, both individuals in a couple will be randomized independently to Gardasil 9 or placebo (Havrix).

Placebo Comparator: Hepatitis A vaccine
The placebo comparator will be Havrix, by GSK. This control vaccine was chosen because hepatitis A immunization provides a similar health prevention incentive as HPV vaccination to study participants while preserving the scientific cogency of a "placebo" comparator. Gardasil 9 requires administration of 3 doses, while Havrix only requires 2 doses. For this reason, a placebo injection (saline solution) will be added in between the Havrix vaccination regimen. Consequently, both treatment and control vaccines will have similar regimens, i.e., study entry, 2 months, and 6 months.
Biological: Hepatitis A vaccine
Provided by GSK.
Other Name: Havrix

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. The primary outcome will be the reduction of HPV DNA positivity for the target HPV vaccine types (i.e., HPVs 6, 11, 16, and 18) in multiple anatomic sites in the placebo-treated sexual partners of persons who received Gardasil. [ Time Frame: At months 2, 4, 6, 9 and 12. ]
    Reduction in HPV type concordance (for the four target types) will be the main outcome evaluable as per the above group contrasts. These comparisons will be done with due attention to the enrolment virological status of the individuals. For instance, it is expected that a Havrix-treated woman who is positive for HPV 6 in the anal specimen but negative for this type in the vaginal specimen may derive benefit if her partner receives Gardasil, even if he is HPV-6 positive in the penile sample. The assumption is that protection via vaccination is pan-mucosal, via transudation of neutralizing antibodies; this protection may mediate transmission.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 45 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Couple must have been in a new relationship that started no more than six months prior to study entry
  • Both partners plan on remaining in Montreal for at least 1 year
  • Plan on having continued sexual contact with partner
  • Be willing to comply with study procedures

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Volunteers must not have been vaccinated against HPV-Gardasil-9 (both partners)
  • Any history of cervical, penile, oral or anal cancers
  • Being pregnant or plan on immediately becoming pregnant

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01824537

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Contact: Allita Rodrigues 514-398-8191

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Canada, Quebec
McGill University - Division of Cancer Epidemiology Recruiting
Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H4A 3T2
Contact: Allita Rodrigues    514-398-8191   
Contact: Anna Tzagourni    (514) 398-8014   
Principal Investigator: Eduardo L Franco, DrPH         
Sponsors and Collaborators
McGill University
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Study Director: Mariam El-Zein, PhD McGill University

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Responsible Party: Dr. Eduardo Franco, James McGill Professor and Chair, Department of Oncology; Director, Division of Cancer Epidemiology, McGill University Identifier: NCT01824537     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CIHR-MOP-125949
IIS #38265 ( Other Grant/Funding Number: Merck )
MOP-125949 ( Other Grant/Funding Number: Canadian Institutes of Health Research )
FDN-143347 ( Other Grant/Funding Number: Canadian Institutes of Health Research )
First Posted: April 4, 2013    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: May 4, 2018
Last Verified: May 2018
Keywords provided by Dr. Eduardo Franco, McGill University:
Human papillomavirus (HPV)
Cervical cancer prevention
Herd immunity
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Papillomavirus Infections
DNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Tumor Virus Infections
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs