Transmission Reduction and Prevention With HPV Vaccination (TRAP-HPV) Study (TRAP-HPV)
Human Papillomavirus Infection
Biological: HPV vaccine, Gardasil 9
Biological: Hepatitis A vaccine
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
|Official Title:||Transmission Reduction and Prevention With HPV Vaccination (TRAP-HPV) Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Efficacy of HPV Vaccination in Preventing Transmission of HPV Infection in Heterosexual Couples|
- The primary outcome will be the reduction of HPV DNA positivity for the target HPV vaccine types (i.e., HPVs 6, 11, 16, and 18) in multiple anatomic sites in the placebo-treated sexual partners of persons who received Gardasil. [ Time Frame: At months 2, 4, 6, 9 and 12. ]Reduction in HPV type concordance (for the four target types) will be the main outcome evaluable as per the above group contrasts. These comparisons will be done with due attention to the enrolment virological status of the individuals. For instance, it is expected that a Havrix-treated woman who is positive for HPV 6 in the anal specimen but negative for this type in the vaginal specimen may derive benefit if her partner receives Gardasil, even if he is HPV-6 positive in the penile sample. The assumption is that protection via vaccination is pan-mucosal, via transudation of neutralizing antibodies; this protection may mediate transmission.
|Study Start Date:||September 2013|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||September 2017|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||September 2017 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Active Comparator: HPV vaccine, Gardasil 9
HPV vaccine intervention: The intervention vaccine will be Gardasil 9, a 9-valent vaccine by Merck. This vaccine was chosen because it allows for the observation of 9 HPV outcomes (HPV 6, 11, 16 and18) (the other available vaccine, Cervarix, protects against HPVs 16 and 18, only).
Biological: HPV vaccine, Gardasil 9
Once recruited, both individuals in a couple will be randomized independently to Gardasil 9 or placebo (Havrix).
Placebo Comparator: Hepatitis A vaccine
The placebo comparator will be Havrix, by GSK. This control vaccine was chosen because hepatitis A immunization provides a similar health prevention incentive as HPV vaccination to study participants while preserving the scientific cogency of a "placebo" comparator. Gardasil 9 requires administration of 3 doses, while Havrix only requires 2 doses. For this reason, a placebo injection (saline solution) will be added in between the Havrix vaccination regimen. Consequently, both treatment and control vaccines will have similar regimens, i.e., study entry, 2 months, and 6 months.
Biological: Hepatitis A vaccine
Provided by GSK.
Other Name: Havrix
Two prophylactic vaccines (Gardasil by Merck, and Cervarix by GlaxoSmithKline) have been proven in randomized controlled trials (RCT) to be highly effective in preventing infection against the target HPV types (HPV-6, 11, 16 and18, for Gardasil, and HPV-16/18, for Cervarix) and the cervical precancerous lesions caused by them. These vaccines have shifted the paradigm of prevention and are expected to have a major impact in reducing the burden of cervical cancer and of other HPV-associated malignancies, such as vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, as well as benign HPV-associated conditions (in the case of Gardasil), such as anogenital warts and respiratory papillomatosis. However, little is known about the extent with which vaccination may reduce transmission between sexual partners; i.e. much remains to be understood on the effects of HPV vaccine in preventing transmission of target HPV types to sexual partners of vaccinated individuals and its impact on herd immunity.
The investigators propose to conduct a placebo-controlled, double-blinded RCT to measure the impact of vaccination in preventing HPV transmission within young (age 18-45) heterosexual couples at McGill and Concordia Universities in Montreal, Canada. Individual partners in 500 couples will be randomized to a treatment (Gardasil 9) or a control vaccine (Havrix, a hepatitis A vaccine). This control vaccine provides a similar health benefit incentive as HPV vaccination while preserving the scientific cogency of a "placebo" comparator. Risk factor data will be collected via computerized questionnaires at enrolment (time 0), 2, 4, 6, 9 and 12 months. At all time points, the investigators will measure HPV DNA infection status by PCR in both partners in exfoliated penile, and oral samples from men and vaginal, oral samples from women. Assessing pre-enrolment humoral immune response to HPV infection with a competitive Luminex immunoassay (CLIA) will be done in an enrolment blood sample from all study participants.
The primary outcome will be the reduction of HPV DNA positivity for the target HPV vaccine types (types 6, 11, 16 and 18) in multiple anatomic sites in Havrix-treated sexual partners of participants who received Gardasil 9. The investigators hypothesize that HPV vaccination is effective in reducing the risk of HPV transmission to their sexual partners. They will use the Kaplan-Meier technique and logrank tests to compare the cumulative probability of HPV infection in sexual partners of vaccinated versus unvaccinated individuals against follow-up time, and Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the effect of vaccination and other covariates on transmission of HPV to sexual partners. Statistical analyses will follow an intention-to-treat approach but additional regression models will examine the role of several candidate determinants in mediating transmission and the protective effects. Mixed-effects models will also be used to take advantage of the repeated measurements across visits, HPV types, and anatomical sites for the same subject.
In addition to the findings on protection to unvaccinated partners, it is expected that this study will provide valuable insights as to whether protection may exist for a vaccine recipient in preventing infection in an anatomical site in which a target type has not yet established infection. These findings will generate key parameter data to inform the extent of herd immunity in cost-effectiveness models of HPV vaccination. Such models are essential to arrive at rational science-driven policies of HPV vaccination in girls and boys in Canada.
(full protocol available upon request)
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01824537
|Contact: Allita Rodriguesfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|McGill University - Division of Cancer Epidemiology||Recruiting|
|Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H2W 1S6|
|Contact: Allita Rodrigues 514-398-8191 email@example.com|
|Contact: Candida Pizzolongo (514) 398-8014 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Principal Investigator: Eduardo L Franco, DrPH|
|Study Director:||Mariam El-Zein, PhD||McGill University|