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Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Influenza Vaccines in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Pregnant Women in Western Kenya

This study has been withdrawn prior to enrollment.
(Scientific review positive from 3 manufacturers; internal committees did not support due to deploying new flu vaccines in HIV+ pregnant women in Kenya.)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Identifier:
First received: March 12, 2013
Last updated: April 8, 2014
Last verified: April 2014
In 2012, the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) concluded that pregnant women are the most important risk group for season influenza vaccination based upon "compelling evidence of substantial risk of severe disease in this group and evidence that seasonal influenza vaccine is safe and effective in preventing disease in pregnant women as well as their young infants, in whom disease burden is also high". Recent data from Kenya, similarly suggest rates of influenza-associated hospitalizations in children under age 1 to be as high, or higher, than those observed in the United States. However, TIV may have reduced immunogenicity in HIV-infected adults, and HIV infection has been shown to reduce placental transfer of both tetanus and measles antibodies. Therefore, we propose to conduct a double-blind randomized controlled trial of influenza vaccines stratified by HIV status in up to 720 pregnant women in their second and third trimesters and their infants residing in health and demographic surveillance sites (HDSS) in Nyanza Province, Western Kenya. We propose to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of standard dose QIV and double dose QIV in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women. Findings will inform maternal influenza vaccination policies in Kenya and other African countries.

Condition Intervention Phase
Influenza, Human
Biological: Quadrivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (QIV)
Biological: Inactivated Polio Vaccine
Biological: Double Dose QIV
Phase 2
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Safety, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy of Standard Dose Quadrivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine, and Double Dose Quadrivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Pregnant Women in a Malaria-Endemic Area of Rural Western Kenya

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Proportion of women with an appropriate rise in Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI) titers [ Time Frame: Enrollment (Day 0) vs. Day 28 for each study arm ]
    The proportion of standard dose (15 µg) QIV and double dose (30 µg) QIV recipients with a fourfold rise in HI titers or HI titers ≥40 if baseline HI titer <10 compared to the same proportion in controls

  • Proportion of infants born to standard dose (15 µg) QIV and double dose (30 µg) QIV recipients with HI titers greater than or equal to 40 in cord blood compared to same in controls. [ Time Frame: At delivery ]
  • Number of solicited and unsolicited adverse events post-vaccination by study arm [ Time Frame: During follow-up period, approx. 9 months ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Vaccine efficacy of standard dose (15 µg) QIV and double dose (30 µg) QIV in mothers and infants compared to control mothers and infants. [ Time Frame: Entire follow-up period, approx. 9 months ]
    Incidence of influenza infection will be measured in all participants by surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI) throughout the study period. Women with fever and cough will be tested for influenza via rRT-PCR of NP/OP swabs. Infants with fever, hypothermia, apnea or any respiratory symptom will also be tested for influenza via rRT-PCR of NP/OP swabs.

  • HIV infection and placental antibody transfer [ Time Frame: Delivery ]
    Compare geometric mean HI titers and geometric mean tetanus antibody titers at delivery in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers with titers in cord blood.

  • Birth weight [ Time Frame: Delivery ]
    Compare birth weight adjusted for gestational age among standard dose (15 µg) QIV and double dose (30 µg) QIV recipients compared to controls.

  • Peripheral and placental parasitemia impact on vaccination [ Time Frame: Day 0 and delivery ]
    Compare change in geometric mean HI titers from day 0 to day 28 in women with and without peripheral parasitemia at the time of vaccination. Compare amount of passive antibody transfer to infants in cord blood in mothers with and without placental parasitemia

  • baseline polio immunity and polio antibody transfer [ Time Frame: day 0 and delivery ]
    Assess baseline immunity to polio types 1, 2, 3 among all study participants. Assess polio antibody transfer to infants from mothers who did and did not receive IPV.

Enrollment: 0
Study Start Date: April 2014
Study Completion Date: April 2014
Primary Completion Date: April 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine (QIV)

15µg of each of 2 influenza A strains (H1N1 and H3N2) and 2 influenza B strains in a buffer solution totaling 0.5mL which is administered intramuscularly.

Administered as a single dose on the day of enrollment.

Biological: Quadrivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (QIV)
Other Name: Fluarix, (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Dresden, Germany)
Active Comparator: Inactivated Polio Vaccine
A sterile suspension of three types of poliovirus: Type 1 (Mahoney), Type 2 (MEF1) and Type 3 (Saukett). This vaccine is prepared from types 1, 2 and 3 of poliomyelitis virus cultured on Vero cells, purified and then inactivated by formaldehyde and administered as a 0.5ml intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. A single dose of vaccine will be administered upon enrollment.
Biological: Inactivated Polio Vaccine
Other Name: Imovax, Sanofi Pasteur SA
Experimental: Double Dose QIV

30µg of each of 2 influenza A strains (H1N1 and H3N2) and 2 influenza B strains in a buffer solution totaling 1.0mL which is administered intramuscularly.

Administered as a single dose on the day of enrollment.

Biological: Double Dose QIV
Other Name: Fluarix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Dresden, Germany)

  Show Detailed Description


Ages Eligible for Study:   13 Years to 49 Years   (Child, Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Resident of HDSS village
  2. Singleton pregnancy
  3. Second or third trimester (after quickening) but before 33 weeks of gestation by fundal height
  4. Does not plan to relocate out of the HDSS area or population-based surveillance site in the next 12 months and agrees to all follow-up visits/contact by phone
  5. Is not currently enrolled in another intervention study
  6. Provides informed consent by signature or thumb print
  7. Consents to HIV testing and counseling as required
  8. Willing to deliver in the labor ward of the study hospital
  9. No history of chronic illness requiring multiple hospitalizations or prolonged medical therapy (except HIV on ART)

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. History of allergic reaction to any component of the study vaccines
  2. Residence outside the study area or planning to relocate out in the 9 months following enrollment
  3. Received immunoglobulin or blood products within 45 days of study entry
  4. Used immunosuppressive medication within 45 days of study entry (inhaled and topical corticosteroids permitted)
  5. High risk pregnancy including any pre-existing condition likely to cause complications of pregnancy (hypertension, diabetes, current asthma, eclampsia or pre-eclampsia, epilepsy, heart disease, renal disease, liver disease, fistula repair, leg or spine deformity)
  6. Unable to give informed consent (for example due to mental disability)
  7. Previous enrollment in a study with similar interventions
  8. Gestational age >32 weeks by last menstrual period or fundal height
  9. Acutely ill with temperature ≥37.5°C on the day of randomization/vaccination
  10. Hemoglobin <7.0 g/dL
  11. Influenza vaccination in previous 12 months
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01810731

Siaya District Hospital
Siaya, Kenya
Sponsors and Collaborators
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Study Director: Meredith L McMorrow, MD, MPH Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Principal Investigator: Joshua A Mott, PhD Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kenya Country Office
Principal Investigator: Nancy Otieno, MS Kenya Medical Research Institute
Study Director: Marc-Alain Widdowson, VetMB, MSc Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  More Information

Responsible Party: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Identifier: NCT01810731     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CDC-NCIRD-6393
Study First Received: March 12, 2013
Last Updated: April 8, 2014

Keywords provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
influenza vaccine immunogenicity
influenza vaccine safety

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Influenza, Human
Orthomyxoviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Respiratory Tract Infections
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Protozoan Infections
Parasitic Diseases
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs processed this record on May 25, 2017