A Drug Treatment for Cocaine Users Who Are Also on Methadone Maintenance Treatment

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01802515
Recruitment Status : Terminated (No funding stopped recruitment march 2014 with only 14 enrolled)
First Posted : March 1, 2013
Results First Posted : December 6, 2016
Last Update Posted : December 6, 2016
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Mehmet Sofuoglu, Yale University

Brief Summary:
The main goal of this study is to evaluate the safety and tolerability of 40 or 80 mg atomoxetine as a treatment for cocaine dependence. The Phase I studies summarized above support the safety of atomoxetine in combination with stimulants. As the next step, the investigators will evaluate the safety and tolerability of atomoxetine in a small clinical trial with cocaine users. If atomoxetine is found to be promising in this study and sufficiently powered, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies will be proposed.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Cocaine Dependence Opiate Dependence Drug: Atomoxetine, low dose Drug: Atomoxetine, high dose Drug: Placebo Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

This will be an approximately 13 to 14 week double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial testing the safety and feasibility of atomoxetine (40 or 80 mg/day) treatment, compared to placebo, in methadone-stabilized stimulant users. The study will have 3 phases: 1) a one to two week- methadone-induction phase; 2) an 8-week "treatment" phase; and 3) 1 week atomoxetine taper and about a 4-week methadone "taper and detoxification or transfer" phase. Subjects will be randomized to three treatment arms: 40 mg (n=15) atomoxetine, or 80 mg (n=15) atomoxetine, or placebo (n=15). During the methadone induction phase, subjects will be stabilized on methadone. During induction onto methadone, participants will be administered increasing doses of methadone starting at 30 mg daily, and this dose will be increased for stabilization of opiate withdrawal symptoms from 40 mg up to 140 mg depending on individual need. Based on the clinic schedule between 1 to 2 weeks after methadone treatment is initiated , atomoxetine treatment will be started at 40 mg/day. For those assigned to 80 mg of atomoxetine, the dose will be titrated up to 80 mg/day on the second week of treatment phase. At the end of the treatment-phase, subjects will undergo detoxification from methadone over a 4-week period based on an individual's needs, and they will concurrently be tapered off atomoxetine. All participants will receive a weekly one-hour of individual psychotherapy (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy) with experienced clinicians specifically trained to deliver the therapy, and who will receive ongoing supervision.

This study has been terminated as of march 2014 due to the lack of funding, only 14 were enrolled with 11 subject completers. (June 2016)

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 14 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Atomoxetine Treatment for Opioid Maintained Cocaine Users
Study Start Date : December 2012
Actual Primary Completion Date : March 2014
Actual Study Completion Date : March 2014

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Atomoxetine, low dose
1 capsule containing 40mg of atomoxetine by mouth everyday for 8 weeks followed by 1 week of daily placebo capsules.
Drug: Atomoxetine, low dose
The effects of 40mg low dose atomoxetine will be compared to placebo and to the 80mg atomoxetine high dose.
Other Names:
  • Strattera,
  • National Drug Codes - 00002-3229

Active Comparator: Atomoxetine, high dose
One capsule containing 80mg of atomoxetine by mouth everyday for 8 weeks, followed by 1 week of daily 40mg atomoxetine capsules
Drug: Atomoxetine, high dose
The effects of 80mg of high dose atomoxetine will be compared to placebo and to 40mg atomoxetine low dose.
Other Name: Strattera, National Drug Codes - 00002-3250

Placebo Comparator: Placebo (sugar pill)
1 placebo capsule by mouth everyday for 8 weeks of treatment invention followed by one week of placebo capsule during study medication taper.
Drug: Placebo
The effects of placebo will be compared to the parallel groups of Atomoxetine high (80mg) dose and Atomoxetine low (40mg) dose.
Other Name: sugar pill

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Treatment Retention [ Time Frame: 8 weeks of treatment ]
    The number of participants completing all 8 weeks of treatment phase.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change Score in the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale [ Time Frame: 8 weeks of treatment ]
    Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression. The CES-D is a 20-item self-report measure of depressive symptoms. Each of the 20 items can yield a score from 0 to 3 for a maximum total CES-D score of 60. Larger values represent more severe symptoms. It is a validated instrument with a score of 16 or more indicating clinically significant depression. The CES-D change score was computed as (total baseline CES-D score - total CES-D score at end of study).

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • • Men and women between 18 and 65 years old.

    • Current opioid dependence as evidenced by 1) documentation of prior treatment for opioid dependence or signs of withdrawal, 2) self-reported history of opioid dependence for 12 consecutive months and, 3) a positive urine toxicology screen for opiates.
    • Diagnosis of opioid dependence and cocaine dependence by Diagnostic and Statisical Manual (DSM-IV) -criteria as well as laboratory confirmation of recent cocaine use in the form of positive urine toxicology during the month prior to study entry.
    • For those who recently participated in a research study, at least 2 weeks of washout period before enrollment.
    • A history of cocaine use,( a minimum of 1/2 gram during the preceding 30 days).
    • Must be seeking treatment for opioid and cocaine use.
    • For women of childbearing age, a negative pregnancy test at screening with agreement to use adequate contraception to prevent pregnancy and monthly pregnancy tests.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • • Serious medical illnesses including hypertension, tachycardia, bradycardia, or other arrhythmias and major cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, renal, endocrine, or hepatic disorders;

    • Serious psychiatric illness, history of psychosis, schizophrenia or bipolar type I disorder.
    • Current major depression. Subjects with current depressive symptoms not meeting criteria will be included in the study, with the exception of those endorsing suicidal and homicidal thoughts, will be excluded even if full criteria for major depression are not met.
    • Current diagnosis of alcohol or drug dependence other than opiates, cocaine, nicotine and cannabis.
    • Current use of over-the-counter or prescription psychoactive drugs (antidepressant, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, psychostimulants) or drugs that would be expected to have major interactions with drugs to be tested, e.g., benzodiazepines, codeine, percocet, and other opiate drugs that will interact with methadone.
    • Has not been treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors within the last fourteen days.
    • Liver function tests (ALT or AST) greater than 3 times normal.
    • Known allergy or intolerance to atomoxetine.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01802515

United States, Connecticut
Department of Veterans Affairs Hospital
West Haven, Connecticut, United States, 06516
Sponsors and Collaborators
Yale University
Principal Investigator: Mehmet Sofuoglu, M.D,Ph.D. Yale University

Responsible Party: Mehmet Sofuoglu, Principal Investigator, Yale University Identifier: NCT01802515     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 1206010407
First Posted: March 1, 2013    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: December 6, 2016
Last Update Posted: December 6, 2016
Last Verified: July 2016
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

Keywords provided by Mehmet Sofuoglu, Yale University:

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Cocaine-Related Disorders
Opioid-Related Disorders
Substance-Related Disorders
Chemically-Induced Disorders
Mental Disorders
Atomoxetine Hydrochloride
Anesthetics, Local
Central Nervous System Depressants
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Vasoconstrictor Agents
Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors
Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors
Membrane Transport Modulators
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Dopamine Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Analgesics, Opioid
Antitussive Agents
Respiratory System Agents
Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors
Adrenergic Agents