The Study of Nasal Insulin in the Fight Against Forgetfulness (SNIFF)
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01767909|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : January 15, 2013
Results First Posted : May 18, 2020
Last Update Posted : May 18, 2020
An urgent need exists to find effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) that can arrest or reverse the disease at its earliest stages. The emotional and financial burden of AD to patients, family members, and society is enormous, and is predicted to grow exponentially as the median population age increases. Current FDA-approved therapies are modestly effective at best. This study will examine a novel therapeutic approach using intranasal insulin (INI) that has shown promise in short-term clinical trials. If successful, information gained from the study has the potential to move INI forward rapidly as a therapy for AD. The study will also provide evidence for the mechanisms through which INI may produce benefits by examining key cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and hippocampal/entorhinal atrophy. These results will have considerable clinical and scientific significance, and provide therapeutically-relevant knowledge about insulin's effects on AD pathophysiology. Growing evidence has shown that insulin carries out multiple functions in the brain, and that insulin dysregulation may contribute to AD pathogenesis.
This study will examine the effects of intranasally-administered insulin on cognition, entorhinal cortex and hippocampal atrophy, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) or mild AD. It is hypothesized that after 12 months of treatment with INI compared to placebo, subjects will improve performance on a global measure of cognition, on a memory composite and on daily function. In addition to the examination of CSF biomarkers and hippocampal and entorhinal atrophy, the study aims to examine whether baseline AD biomarker profile, gender, or Apolipoprotein epsilon 4 (APOE-ε4) allele carriage predict treatment response.
In this study, 240 people with aMCI or AD will be given either INI or placebo for 12 months, following an open-label period of 6 months where all participants will be given active drug. The study uses insulin as a therapeutic agent and intranasal administration focusing on nose to brain transport as a mode of delivery.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment Alzheimer's Disease||Drug: Insulin (Humulin® R U-100) Drug: Placebo||Phase 2 Phase 3|
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||240 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)|
|Official Title:||Therapeutic Effects of Intranasally-Administered Insulin in Adults With Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) or Mild Alzheimer's Disease (AD)|
|Actual Study Start Date :||January 8, 2014|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||December 11, 2018|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||December 11, 2018|
Experimental: Insulin (Humulin® R U-100)
120 subjects will take two daily doses of INI (20 IU bid for a total daily dose of 40 IU) approximately 30 minutes after breakfast and dinner for 12 months. A 6-month open label period will follow in which all participants will receive INI.
Drug: Insulin (Humulin® R U-100)
20 IU bid taken twice daily (approximately 30 minutes after breakfast and dinner) for a total of 40 IU daily, which will be administered intranasally. The device used to administer insulin releases a metered dose into a chamber covering the participant's nose. The insulin is then inhaled by breathing evenly over a specified period.
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
120 subjects will take two daily doses of placebo approximately 30 minutes after breakfast and dinner for 12 months. A 6-month open label period will follow in which all participants will receive INI.
Placebo taken twice daily (approximately 30 minutes after breakfast and dinner), which will be administered intranasally. The device used to administer placebo releases a metered dose into a chamber covering the participant's nose. The placebo is then inhaled by breathing evenly over a specified period.
- Change in Global Measure of Cognition as Measured by the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive 12 (ADAS-Cog12) [ Time Frame: 12 months (blinded phase) followed by 6 months (open label phase) ]The ADAS-Cog is a psychometric instrument that evaluates memory, attention, reasoning, language, orientation, and praxis. The ADAS-Cog12 version was used in this study which includes Delayed Word Recall - a measure of episodic memory. Scores from the original portion of the test range from 0 (best) to 70 (worse) and then number of items not recalled ranging from 0-10 is added for a maximum score of 80. A positive change indicates cognitive worsening.
- Change in Memory Composite as Measured by Story Recall (Immediate Paragraph Recall and Delayed Paragraph Recall) and Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) [ Time Frame: 12 months (blinded phase) followed by 6 months (open label phase) ]Memory Composite is composed from Story Recall (both Immediate Paragraph Recall and Delayed Paragraph Recall) and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT). Each of the three component scores were normalized by subtracting the baseline sample mean, and dividing by the baseline sample standard deviation, to form three separately standardized z-scores with mean 0 and standard deviation 1. The three Z-scores were summed to form the memory composite. No other standardization was performed on the sum. If any of Immediate Paragraph Recall, Delayed Paragraph Recall and FCSRT is missing, the memory composite is missing. Higher scores indicate better performance. In this study the scores ranged from about -4.74 to 9.15 at baseline, and about -5.10 to 9.43 across all visits over 12 months.
- Change in Daily Functioning as Measured by the ADCS-MCI Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL-MCI) [ Time Frame: 12 months (blinded phase) and 6 months (open label phase) ]The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study - Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADCS-ADL) is an activities of daily living questionnaire aimed at detecting functional decline in people with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). In a structured interview format, informants are queried as to whether participants attempted each item in the inventory during the prior 4 weeks and their level of performance. The questions focus predominantly on instrumental activities of daily living scales (e.g. shopping, preparing meals, using household appliances, keeping appointments, reading). The total score can range from 0-54. A higher score indicates greater functional ability.
- Change in Cognitive Deficit as Measured by Clinical Dementia Rating - Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) [ Time Frame: 12 months (blinded phase) followed by 6 months (open label phase) ]The Clinical Dementia Rating - Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) is administered as a structured interview with the participant and study partner, where impairment is scored in each of categories: memory, orientation, judgment and problem solving, community affairs, home and hobbies and personal care. Impairment is scored on a scale in which none = 0, questionable = 0.5, mild = 1, moderate = 2 and severe = 3. The 6 individual category ratings, or "box scores", are added together to give the CDR-Sum of Boxes which ranges from 0-18 with higher scores indicated more impairment.
- Change in Hippocampal and Entorhinal Atrophy as Measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) [ Time Frame: Screen and Month 12 ]MRI will be used to assess the effect of treatment on rate of hippocampal and entorhinal atrophy, and conduct exploratory analyses of other brain regions. Volume change was normalized to the participant's own intracranial volume to account for each participant's brain size.
- Change in CSF Biomarkers of AD [ Time Frame: Baseline and Month 12 ]Quantify Abeta and Tau biomarkers in CSF
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01767909
|Study Director:||Suzanne Craft, PhD||Wake Forest University Health Sciences|
|Study Director:||Paul Aisen, MD||USC Alzheimer's Therapeutic Research Institute (ATRI)|