We updated the design of this site on December 18, 2017. Learn more.
ClinicalTrials.gov Menu

Build Better Bones With Exercise (B3E)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01761084
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : January 4, 2013
Last Update Posted : March 15, 2017
Information provided by (Responsible Party):

Study Description
Brief Summary:
The long-term goal of our research team is to conduct a large multicentre study to evaluate whether tailored home exercise can prevent fractures in high-risk individuals. The proposed project will address the feasibility of such a trial, but will also evaluate the effect of exercise on quality of life, posture and many other outcomes important to individuals with vertebral fractures. Physiotherapists will conduct 6 home visits with participants to deliver the intervention (or social visit for controls) using a similar model to previous work by our team and others. The purpose of this pilot study is determining the feasibility of recruitment, retention and adherence of an international multicentre randomized controlled study evaluating the efficacy of thrice-weekly home exercise for one year among women with vertebral fracture. As secondary objectives, the investigators will examine the effects of exercise on function, balance, quality of life, pain, falls and fractures. The primary hypothesis is that the investigators will successfully recruit and retain the target sample, and achieve an adherence rate of 60%.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment
Osteoporotic Fractures Spinal Fractures Behavioral: Exercise and behaviour change strategies

Detailed Description:
There is limited data available from which to develop guidelines for safe and effective exercise prescription among individuals with hip or vertebral fractures. The long-term goal of our research team is to conduct a large multi-centre randomized controlled trial (RCT) to investigate whether participating in a thrice-weekly home exercise program for one year can reduce incident fragility fractures among women aged 65 years or older with a history of vertebral fracture compared to no intervention. The current study is a pilot study with the principal objective of determining the feasibility of recruitment, retention and adherence of an international multicentre RCT evaluating the efficacy of thrice-weekly home exercise for one year among women with vertebral fracture. The intervention was developed by experts in exercise prescription based on a rigorous literature review and Cochrane meta-analysis we have conducted. Physiotherapists will conduct 6 home visits with participants to deliver the intervention (or social visit for controls) using a similar model to previous work by our team and others. Secondary outcomes of the pilot study are those hypothesized to be among the causal pathway linking exercise to fracture risk, including lower extremity strength, posture, balance, as well as falls and fractures. Additional secondary outcomes include quality of life, pain, exercise self-efficacy, the cost of the intervention, and the risk of adverse events associated with exercise. The recruitment and retention process will be summarized using a CONSORT flow diagram, and the reporting of results will be in accordance with the CONSORT criteria. Analyses of feasibility objectives will be descriptive or based on estimates with 95% confidence intervals, where feasibility will be assessed relative to criteria defined a priori. Differences in secondary outcomes will be evaluated in intention to treat analyses via independent student T-tests, Chi Square or logistic regression. The Bonferroni method will be used to adjust the level of significance for secondary outcomes so the overall level is alpha=0.05. Even if the larger trial proves not to be feasible, the current trial will be one of the largest exercise studies among a representative group of women with vertebral fracture to date, and will evaluate the feasibility and costs of a comprehensive home exercise program, and its effect on important secondary outcomes. Osteoporosis Canada has defined a need to develop patient resources on exercise and recently announced a shift in priority to individuals with existing fractures; the proposed pilot study is timely and will directly inform these knowledge translation initiatives.

Study Design

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 139 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Build Better Bones With Exercise: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Exercise in Women With Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture
Study Start Date : January 2013
Primary Completion Date : December 2016
Estimated Study Completion Date : March 2018

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

U.S. FDA Resources

Arms and Interventions

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Exercise and behaviour change strategies
The exercise program will include strength training, balance training and cardiovascular exercise that is individually tailored to the participants' abilities. The physical therapist will also implement strategies to assist with behaviour change, such as documenting progress in a log, participating in action planning and coping planning, and using techniques in the spirit of motivational interviewing.
Behavioral: Exercise and behaviour change strategies
  1. cardiovascular exercise (e.g., marching, walking) for ≥10 minutes per day
  2. postural retraining and balance exercises ≥3 days a week (will be encouraged to do these daily)
  3. perform muscle strengthening and balance training exercises ≥ 3 days a week
  4. the exercise intervention was developed using the Bone Fit program as a framework (http://www.bonefit.ca/). The physical therapist will tailor exercises and work with participant to integrate them into their day.
No Intervention: General health or social discussion
Participants in the control group will receive equal attention, but will not be prescribed exercise, or participate in counselling about exercise. The physical therapist will discuss topics related to general health.

Outcome Measures

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Feasibility of recruitment and retention [ Time Frame: Monthly records up to 12 months. ]
    Number of participants recruited and retained. Criteria for success = 20 recruited per site and at least 75% retained.

  2. Adherence [ Time Frame: Monthly records over 12 months ]
    Number of exercise sessions completed relative to prescribed. We will use a diary for participants to self-report adherence.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number and location of fractures. [ Time Frame: Baseline, one year and at report of fracture (monitored monthly for reports). ]
    Incident fracture will be a composite outcome of a vertebral fracture or fragility fracture (excluding fractures due to trauma or cancer). A fracture questionnaire will be used to ascertain the occurrence of fractures, the approximate timing and the cause with fracture occurrence, location and severity verified through health record data. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine x-rays will be performed on participants at baseline (to confirm prevalent vertebral fractures) and follow-up (to identify new fractures). Vertebral fractures will be defined as radiographic presence of ≥25% reduction in anterior, middle or posterior height of a vertebra using the Genant visual semi-quantitative method.

  2. Number of falls. [ Time Frame: Monthly up to one year. ]
    Diary for participants to self-report falls.

  3. Occiput to wall distance [ Time Frame: Baseline and one year. ]
  4. Scores on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) [ Time Frame: Baseline and one year. ]
    The SPPB consists of balance tests (side-by-side, semi-tandem, and tandem standing), gait speed during 4-meter walk test, and the average time taken to rise from a chair with arms folded across chest and sit back down (Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand test).

  5. Scores on Balance Outcome Measure for Elder Rehabilitation (BOOMER). [ Time Frame: Baseline and one year. ]
    Balance Outcome Measure for Elder Rehabilitation (BOOMER) includes the step test, the Timed Up and Go, the Functional Reach test and the timed static stance feet together eyes closed test. We will also look at changes in these outcomes individually.

  6. Quality of Life (QoL) and Pain scores measured through the EuroQOL instrument (EQ5D5L) and the Osteoporosis Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ) and a Visual Analog Scale. [ Time Frame: Baseline, 6 months and one year. ]
  7. Scores on exercise self-efficacy scales. [ Time Frame: Baseline, 6 months and one year. ]
    To assess self-efficacy related to engaging in exercise, participants will be asked "Over the next 3 months, how confident are you that you can perform exercise on most days of the week?" and "Over the next 3 months, how confident are you that you can perform exercise on 3 days of the week?." To assess implementation intentions, participants are asked "Do you already have concrete plans regarding exercise?". Patients will rate their answers on a scale from 1-5.

  8. Score on Short-form Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I). [ Time Frame: Baseline, 6 months and one year. ]
  9. Productivity [ Time Frame: Monthly up to one year. ]
    Questionnaire regarding productivity

  10. Physical activity [ Time Frame: Baseline, 6 months, 12 months ]
    A modified version of the Short-Form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) will be completed. A subset of participants at the University of Waterloo (St. Mary's General Hospital) will wear an accelerometer for 7 days.

  11. Number of adverse events per participant. [ Time Frame: Monthly up to one year. ]
    Defined as death or event that is life-threatening, requires hospitalization or results in disability.

  12. Number of individuals screened and eligible per collection site. [ Time Frame: over 1 year ]
  13. Number of potentially eligible males [ Time Frame: over 1 year of recruitment ]
  14. Number of multiple fallers. [ Time Frame: Monthly up to 12 months. ]
  15. Falls rate. [ Time Frame: Monthly up to 12 months. ]
  16. Value of direct medical resources per participant. [ Time Frame: Baseline, 6 months and one year. ]
  17. Value of non-direct medical resources per participant. [ Time Frame: Baseline, 6 months and one year. ]
  18. Height and weight [ Time Frame: Baseline and one year ]
  19. Activities of Daily Living [ Time Frame: Monthly up to one year ]
    0-10 scale about ability to do activities of daily living

  20. Timed Loaded Standing Test [ Time Frame: Baseline and one year ]
    A physical performance measure of combined trunk and arm endurance.

Eligibility Criteria

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

Ages Eligible for Study:   65 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Has a) a known or suspected vertebral fracture of non-traumatic etiology OR b) one of the following:

    • documented height loss of ≥2cm
    • historical height loss of ≥6cm
    • visible hyperkyphosis
  • age greater than or equal to 65 years of age
  • able to understand instructions in english
  • able to give informed consent (no cognitive impairment)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Current or prior cancer
  • On dialysis, known liver, kidney or malabsorption disease
  • Progressive neurological disorder, unable to stand or walk for 10 metres, with/without gait aid or progressive disorder likely to prevent study completion, palliative care.
  • Current participation in muscle strengthening or similar exercise program ≥ 3 times per week
  • Uncontrolled hypertension or other contraindications to exercise
Contacts and Locations

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01761084

Canada, Ontario
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Waterloo
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
University of Western Ontario, Canada
University Health Network, Toronto
McMaster University
University of Melbourne
University of British Columbia
Principal Investigator: Lora Giangregorio, PhD University of Waterloo
More Information

Additional Information:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: University of Waterloo
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01761084     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 18539
First Posted: January 4, 2013    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 15, 2017
Last Verified: March 2017

Keywords provided by University of Waterloo:
Spine fracture
Vertebral fracture
Exercise Interventions

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Fractures, Bone
Osteoporotic Fractures
Spinal Fractures
Wounds and Injuries
Spinal Injuries
Back Injuries