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Ages Eligible for Study:
18 Years to 50 Years (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:
Male or female subjects between the ages of 18 to 50 years (inclusive).
Must undergo a physical examination by a licensed physician, advanced practice nurse or physician assistant, including a 12 lead ECG, a medical history, and a blood test checking complete blood count and screening for sickle cell trait or disease
All female volunteers must have a negative urine pregnancy test prior to participation.
Pregnancy or lactating women
Unexplained syncopal episodes
Hypertension (defined as a systolic pressure of >145 mmHg or a diastolic pressure >90 mm Hg on three consecutive readings)
Premature ventricular contractions (PVC's) that are symptomatic or occur at a rate of more than 5/minute
History of seizures (except childhood febrile seizures) or epilepsy
Routine use of tranquilizers and/or excessive anxiety
History of frequent headaches or migraines
History of stroke
Previous injury or trauma to fingers or hands that may change blood flow or vascular supply and affect our ability to test multiple sensors
History of "altitude sickness" defined as headaches, malaise or dizziness when in the mountains or in an aircraft at altitude significantly above sea level for a prolonged period of time (> 1 hour)
History of significant respiratory disease, such as severe asthma, emphysema, etc.
Sickle cell disease or trait.
The use of medications, pre-existing medical conditions, treatment for a medical condition or any other reason deemed relevant by the clinician conducting the study.
Abnormal ECG finding
Prior or known allergies to lidocaine (or similar pharmacologic agents, e.g., Novocain)
Prior or known allergies to heparin.
History of transient ischemic attacks or carotid artery disease
History of myocardial ischemia, angina, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure or cardiomyopathy
History of chronic renal impairment
History of recent arterial cannulation (less than 1 month prior to study)
History of complications from previous arterial cannulation