Toilet Training Toddlers and Preschoolers
|Study Design:||Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Changing the Number of Accidents, Percentage of Appropriate Eliminations, and Number of Self-Initiations Across Toddlers and Preschoolers|
- Change in the Mean Number of Accidents Across Children [ Time Frame: 2 months minus baseline ]
- Change in the Mean Percentage of Appropriate Eliminations Across Children [ Time Frame: 2 months minus baseline ]
- Change in the Mean Number of Self-initiations to Sit on the Toilet Across Children [ Time Frame: 2 months minus baseline ]
|Study Start Date:||November 2012|
|Study Completion Date:||July 2013|
|Primary Completion Date:||July 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Underwear/Differential Reinforcement
All subjects will wear underwear followed by wearing underwear while receiving differential reinforcement.
Behavioral: Underwear/Differential Reinforcement
Participants are going to be placed in underwear. Differential reinforcement will then be implemented.
First, the effects of the baseline toileting program are assessed. Baseline consists of prompting the child to use the bathroom approximately every 90 min (or more frequently if they independently request to do so). If the investigators observe low levels of continence, appropriate eliminations, and/or independent/self requests, components of the program are systematically altered to increase success. The ultimate goal is for the child to remain continent throughout the day, independently request (or initiate) toilet use, and appropriately eliminate in the toilet once in the bathroom. The following procedural modifications are made if high levels of success are not observed in baseline:
The first modification is to change the child's undergarment type. Specifically, underwear will be used, and it's effects will be evaluated to determine what effect (if any) underwear has on toileting performance.
The second modification is to conduct an individualized preference assessment to identify types of food and leisure items a given child prefers. This is done by having the child select items from an array (items selected based on direct observations of child and parent/teacher report) and allowing him/her access to the chosen item for a brief period of time. This will generate a list of preferred items/activities ranked in order of relative preference. Subsequently, the highest ranked items from the preference assessment will be arranged as reinforcers for continence, appropriate eliminations, and self-initiations. A third modification is to combine the above modifications to determine whether a combination of toilet training procedures enhances toileting performance (as compare to the implementation of individual toilet training procedures). This modification will be conducted while children wear underwear.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01747343
|United States, Kansas|
|Edna A. Hill Child Development Center at the University of Kansas|
|Lawrence, Kansas, United States, 66045|
|Principal Investigator:||Brian D Greer, Ph.D.||Doctoral Student (Graduated)|