Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Endothelial Function in Obese Adolescents
Vitamin D Deficiency
Dietary Supplement: Vitamin D3
|Study Design:||Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Prevention
|Official Title:||Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Endothelial Function in Obese Adolescents|
- Flow Mediated Dilatation (FMD) [ Time Frame: baseline, 3 months ]Endothelial function was assessed by FMD, via a high-resolution Doppler ultrasonography examination of the right brachial artery. FMD was calculated as the maximal percentage increase in brachial artery diameter (BAD) from baseline after the release of cuff occlusion.
- 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25[OH]D) Levels [ Time Frame: baseline, 3 months ]25(OH)D was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Total 25(OH)D concentrations of each sample was calculated using internal standard, 25(OH)D_2 and 25(OH)D_3.
- Total Cholesterol [ Time Frame: baseline, 3 months ]Total cholesterol levels were measured by an enzymatic colorimetric assay.
- Triglycerides [ Time Frame: baseline, 3 months ]Total triglyceride levels were measured by an enzymatic colorimetric assay.
- Body Mass Index [ Time Frame: baseline, 3 months ]Body Mass Index (BMI) is a health index for comparing weight to height. BMI is a person's weight in kilograms (kg) divided by his or her height in meters squared. The body mass index is an indication if a person is at a suitable weight for his height on an approximation of body fat. A body mass index of under 20 is considered to be underweight, while a body mass index between 20 to 25 is considered healthy. A body mass index in the range of 25 to 30 is regarded as overweight. A body mass index over 30 is regarded as obese.
- International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) Short Form Score [ Time Frame: baseline, 3 months ]The IPAQ short form used asked 7 questions about activities in the last 7 days, covering vigorous physical activities, moderate activities, walking, and sitting, asking for days per week, hours per day or minutes per day. The score is reported in metabolic equivalent (MET)-minutes per week. Possible scores could range from 0 (inactive) to greater than 3000 MET-minutes/week (highly active). The definition of high activity was vigorous intensity activity on at least 3 days achieving a minimum total activity of at least 1500 MET-minutes/week OR 7 days of any combination of walking, moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity activities achieving a minimum total physical activity of at least 3000 MET-minutes/week. Therefore a score of > 3000 MET-minutes/week was possible.
- Calcium Intake Per Day [ Time Frame: baseline, 3 months ]Calcium intake was measured using the validated Short Calcium Questionnaire (SCQ). This questionnaire is in the form of an spreadsheet, and asks the participant to enter the number of servings per week of various food items and vitamin or mineral supplements. The spreadsheet calculates the daily calcium intake (mg/day) from the data entered.
- Serum Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) [ Time Frame: baseline, 3 months ]A parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test measures the level of parathyroid hormone in the blood. This test is used to help identify hyperparathyroidism, to find the cause of abnormal calcium levels, or to check the status of chronic kidney disease. PTH controls calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood. PTH was measured by a two-site chemiluminescent immunometric assay.
- Fasting Glucose [ Time Frame: baseline, 3 months ]Plasma glucose was measured by hexokinase enzymatic assay.
- Fasting Insulin [ Time Frame: baseline, 3 months ]Serum insulin was measured using commercial electrochemiluminescence immunoassay kits.
- Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance Index (HOMA-IR) [ Time Frame: baseline, 3 months ]This calculation measures insulin resistance, and requires U.S. standard units. The healthy range is 0.5 to 1.4. Less than 1.0 means the subject is insulin-sensitive, which is optimal. Above 1.9 indicates early insulin resistance. Above 2.9 indicates significant insulin resistance. The HOMA-IR was calculated as: HOMA-IR = fasting serum glucose (mmol/L) x fasting insulin (mU/mL)/22.5.
- High Sensitivity C-reactive Protein (Hs-CRP) [ Time Frame: baseline, 3 months ]A high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) test may be used to help evaluate an individual for risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein that increases in the blood with inflammation. Studies have suggested that a persistent low level of inflammation plays a major role in atherosclerosis, the narrowing of blood vessels due to build-up of cholesterol and other lipids, which is often associated with CVD. The hs-CRP test accurately measures low levels of C-reactive protein to identify low but persistent levels of inflammation and thus helps predict a person's risk of developing CVD. hs-CRP was measured using particle-enhanced immunonephelometry.
- Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL) Cholesterol Levels [ Time Frame: baseline, 3 months ]The test for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is used as part of a lipid profile to predict an individual's risk of developing heart disease. A desirable level is <3.36 mmol/L; borderline high is 3.36 - 4.11 mmol/L; high is >/= 4.14 mmol/L. LDL cholesterol was calculated as: LDL = Total cholesterol - HDL cholesterol - Triglycerides/5.
- High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Cholesterol Levels [ Time Frame: baseline, 3 months ]Total HDL cholesterol levels were measured by an enzymatic colorimetric assay. The test for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is used along with other lipid tests to screen for unhealthy levels of lipids and to determine the risk of developing heart disease. If a subject has a negative risk factor, a desirable HDL level would be >/= 1.55 mmol/L.
- Urine Calcium to Creatinine Ratio [ Time Frame: baseline, 3 months ]Urine calcium/creatinine ratio (unit mg/g) on random urine sample was calculated by dividing calcium in mg by creatinine in g.
- Reactive Hyperemia Index (RHI) [ Time Frame: baseline, 3 months ]The cuff of a sphygmomanometer was placed on the forearm and inflated to 50 mm Hg above the participant's systolic blood pressure for a period of 5 min. The increase in resting brachial blood flow was calculated as the maximum flow recorded in the first 15 seconds after cuff deflation and expressed as a percentage increase from baseline reactive. Higher values are considered normal or improved endothelial function.
|Study Start Date:||November 2012|
|Study Completion Date:||December 2013|
|Primary Completion Date:||December 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Vitamin D3
Vitamin D3 supplementation at 100,000 IU once a month for 3 months
Dietary Supplement: Vitamin D3
Vitamin D 3 at 100,000 IU once a month for 3 months
Other Name: Cholecalciferol
Subjects had a brief screening visit with one of the study team members. Past medical history, current medications and a brief dietary history was taken. The dietary history was taken to assess calcium intake in a day and was obtained via the validated Short Calcium questionnaire. Blood pressure, heart rate as well as height,weight, waist and hip circumference measurement was obtained by study staff. In addition, a brief physical examination to determine Tanner stage was also completed. This involved examination of both breasts and genitalia for adolescent female and only genitalia in males. A physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) was also administered by the study staff at this visit. A blood draw of 5 ml to measure plasma 25(OH) D, calcium, phosphorus was obtained as part of the screening visit. For girls who had started menstruating, a urine pregnancy test was also obtained.
After the screening visit eligible subjects had baseline biochemical tests and an endothelial function assessment. Study participants received a pill container with six total pills of vitamin cholecalciferol (D3) (1 pill = 50,000 IU), with directions to take two pills once a month (100,000 IU) at the same time for a period of 3 months. Compliance was assessed at the 3 month visit by counting the number of pills remaining in the container.
At 1 month, the subjects had tests for serum calcium and 25 hydroxy vitamin D levels. A urine test for random calcium to creatinine ratio was also obtained.
At 2 months, the serum calcium, 25 hydroxy vitamin D levels, and calcium to creatinine ratio tests were repeated.
At the end of 3 months, biochemical tests and an endothelial function assessment were repeated. Medical history, questionnaires, and the physical exam were also repeated.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01746264
|United States, Minnesota|
|Rochester, Minnesota, United States, 55905|
|Principal Investigator:||Seema Kumar, MD||Mayo Clinic|