Sandostatin LAR and Axitinib vs Pbo in Pnts With Advanced Well-differentiated Non-pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinomas

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01744249
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : December 6, 2012
Last Update Posted : June 11, 2018
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Grupo Espanol de Tumores Neuroendocrinos

Brief Summary:
Assess whether therapy with axitinib, a potent angiogenic inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase receptors of VEGF bioavailable by oral administration, is capable of improving PFS in patients with advanced G1-G2 NETs of nonpancreatic origin with progressive disease documented in the 12 months prior to entering the study.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Neuroendocrine Tumors Advanced Cancer Drug: Axitinib Drug: Sandostatin LAR Drug: Placebo Phase 2 Phase 3

Detailed Description:
Phase II/III, prospective, multicenter, randomized (1:1), double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of axitinib in patients diagnosed with advanced G1-G2 neuroendocrine tumors (WHO 2010) of nonpancreatic origin that have presented documented disease progression in the 12 months prior to entering the study. In the first part of the study (Phase II), 105 patients were enrolled. The second part of the study is the expansion to Phase III, which is expected to include 148 additional patients. Patients will be randomized to receive Sandostatin LAR with axitinib or Sandostatin LAR with placebo until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurs. Randomization will be stratified by the time from diagnosis to enrollment in the study (more vs less than or equal to 12 months), the origin of the primary tumor (gastrointestinal tract vs non-gastrointestinal tract [lung or other sites]) and ki-67 (< 5% vs > 5%).

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 105 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase II/III Randomized Double-blind Study of Sandostatin LAR in Combination With Axitinib Versus Sandostatin LAR With Placebo in Patients With Advanced G1-G2 Neuroendocrine Tumours (WHO 2010) of Non-pancreatic Origin
Actual Study Start Date : November 2011
Estimated Primary Completion Date : November 2019
Estimated Study Completion Date : October 2020

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Axitinib + Sandostatin LAR
Axitinib 5 mg BID + Sandostatin LAR 30mg/28 days
Drug: Axitinib
Orally, 5mg, twice daily, until progression or until unacceptable toxicity, with or without food intake.

Drug: Sandostatin LAR
Intramuscular, 30mg, single injection every 28 days, until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity

Placebo Comparator: Placebo + Sandostatin LAR
Placebo BID + Sandostatin LAR 30mg/28 days
Drug: Sandostatin LAR
Intramuscular, 30mg, single injection every 28 days, until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity

Drug: Placebo
orally, twice daily, until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity, with or without food intake.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Effectiveness of axitinib in terms of PFS [ Time Frame: until disease progression, end of treatment or minimum 6 months ]
    calculated from the date of random assignment until the date of first progressive disease or tumor-related death

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Objective response rate (ORR) and the duration of response. [ Time Frame: Until disease progression, end of treatment or minimum 6 months ]
    Measured according to RECIST 1.1 criteria; Sum of longest diameter of target lesions measured in mm

  2. Functional response rate using F-DOPA-PET (optional, depending on availability) [ Time Frame: Until disease progression, end of treatment or minimum 6 months ]
    measured in SUV (standardized uptake value)

  3. Biochemical response (5-OH-indoleacetic acid and chromogranin A) [ Time Frame: Until death, last follow-up, or minimum 6 months ]
    measurable in mL/ 24h and ng/ml respectively, through blood and urine test

  4. Safety and tolerability of axitinib (National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [NCI-CTCAE], version 4.0) [ Time Frame: Until disease progression, end of treatment or minimum 6 months ]
    All adverse events and serious adverse events will be monitored with regular monitoring of hematology and blood chemistry parameters and regular physical examinations. Adverse events will be evaluated continuously throughout the study. Safety and tolerability will be assessed according to the National Institute of Health/National Cancer Institute (NIH/NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4 (CTCAE v4)

  5. Explore potential biomarkers [ Time Frame: Until disease progression or or minimum 6 months ]

    The following parameters will be measured: circulating tumor cells, circulating endothelial cells, hypertension (mmHg), and other serum or tumoral biomarkers of angiogenesis).

    Peripheral blood samples (9ml) will be obtained before treatment, after 1 month since the start of treatment and after disease progression and or the end of study visit. The blood samples will be processed for mRNA extraction. Hypoxia dependant genes and marker genes which transcription depends on the activation of VEGF, will be analyzed using qPCR. The dynamic profile of those genes will then be analyzed in relation to the response to axitinib, evaluating their predictive value of response.

    Paraffin-embedded tumor tissue will also be collected from all patients to investigate the prognostic value and predictive potential of the different intracellular pathways related to VEGFR, PDGFR and other signaling pathways.

  6. Evaluate overall survival. [ Time Frame: from the date of randomization to the date of death from any cause whichever came first, assessed up to 50 months. ]

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. G1-G2 neuroendocrine tumor (WHO 2010) of histologically confirmed non-pancreatic origin, functioning and nonfunctioning
  2. Metastatic or locally advanced disease not amenable to treatment with curative intent
  3. Clinical and/or radiological disease progression documented in the 12 months prior to study entry.
  4. Patients should have at least one measurable lesion as defined by RECIST 1.1 criteria. Patients should not have undergone local or regional ablative procedures (embolization, cryoablation, radiofrequency ablation, or others) in the 6 months prior to entering the study, unless there are other locations of measurable disease or clear radiological progression after carrying out these procedures (in these cases, local and regional ablation procedures shall be permitted if they have been performed at least 1 month prior to enrollment in the study).
  5. Ki-67 < 20%
  6. Prior treatment with somatostatin analogues is allowed
  7. Prior treatment with interferon is allowed
  8. Prior treatment is allowed with up to 2 antineoplastic systemic treatment lines different from SAs or IFN (systemic treatment is understood as conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy or new drugs for therapeutic targets as mTOR or other, as long as it is not directed against VEGF/VEGFR). Treatment with SAs or IFN does not count as prior lines of antineoplastic treatment.
  9. Prior treatment with targeted therapy against VEGF or VEGFR is not allowed.
  10. Adequate organ function as defined by the following criteria:

    • Absolute neutrophil count ≥ 1500 cells/mm3,
    • Platelet count ≥ 75,000 cells/mm3,
    • Hemoglobin ≥ 9.0 g/dL,
    • AST y ALT ≤ 2.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN), except if liver metastases exist, in which case AST and ALT 5.0 ≤ x ULN is allowed,
    • Total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 x ULN,
    • Serum creatinine ≤ 1.5 x ULN or calculated creatinine clearance ≥ 60 mL/min,
    • Proteinuria < 2+ by reactive strip. If the reactive strip is ≥ 2+, a 24-hour urine sample should be collected and the patient may be eligible if urinary protein excretion is < 2 g every 24 hours.
  11. Men or women aged ≥ 18 years.
  12. ECOG performance status 0-2
  13. Life expectancy ≥ 12 weeks
  14. At least 4 weeks should pass from the end of the previous systemic treatment with resolution of all treatment-related toxicities to grade ≤ 1 according to NCI CTCAE Version 4.0 or to baseline, except for alopecia or properly treated hypothyroidism.
  15. No prior evidence of uncontrolled hypertension should exist, as documented by 2 baseline blood pressure readings taken at least 1 hour apart. Baseline readings of systolic blood pressure should be ≤ 150 mm Hg and baseline readings of diastolic pressure should be ≤ 90 mm Hg. Patients whose hypertension is being controlled with antihypertensive therapy are eligible.
  16. Women (or their partners) should be surgically sterilized or postmenopausal, or must agree to use an effective contraceptive method during and for at least 6 months after receiving study treatment. All women of childbearing age should have a negative pregnancy test (serum/urine) within 7 days prior to starting treatment. Men (or their partners) should be surgically sterilized or must agree to use an effective contraceptive method during and for at least 6 months after receiving study treatment. The definition of an effective contraceptive method must comply with local regulations and will be based on the criterion of the principal investigator or a designated associate. Lactating women may not participate in this study.
  17. Signed and dated informed consent document stating that the patient has been informed of all the pertinent aspects of the trial prior to recruitment.
  18. Willingness and ability to comply with scheduled visits, treatment plans (including willingness to take axitinib or placebo according to randomization), laboratory tests, and other study procedures.

Exclusion Criteria:

1. Subjects must be evaluated with regard to the following exclusion criteria:

  1. The following types of endocrine tumors will not be included: paraganglioma, adrenal endocrine tumor, thyroid, parathyroid, or pituitary.
  2. Major surgery within previous 4 weeks, or radiation therapy within 2 weeks prior to the start of treatment. Prior palliative radiotherapy for metastatic lesions is permitted if there is at least one measurable lesion that has not been irradiated (i.e., if there are other non-irradiated target lesions).
  3. Gastrointestinal abnormalities, including:

    • Inability to swallow oral medication;
    • Need for intravenous feeding;
    • Prior surgical procedures that affect absorption, including total gastric resection;
    • Treatment for active peptic ulcer in the last 6 months;
    • Uncontrolled active gastrointestinal bleeding unrelated to cancer, as evidenced by hematemesis, hematochezia or clinically significant melena in the last 3 months without evidence of resolution documented by endoscopy or colonoscopy;
    • Malabsorption syndromes;
  4. Current or anticipated need for treatment with drugs that are potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 (grapefruit juice, verapamil, ketoconazole, miconazole, itraconazole, erythromycin, telithromycin, clarithromycin, indinavir, saquinavir, ritonavir, nelfinavir, lopinavir, atazanavir, amprenavir, fosamprenavir, and delavirdine) unless they can be replaced by another medication with minimal potential for CYP3A4/5 inhibition. The use of low-dose oral steroids (< 5 mg/day prednisone or equivalent) is allowed. Co-administration of steroids may increase plasma concentrations of axitinib.
  5. Current use or anticipated need for treatment with drugs that are known potent CYP3A4/5 inducers (carbamazepine, dexamethasone, felbamate, phenobarbital, phenytoin, amobarbital, nevirapine, primidone, rifabutin, rifampicin, and St. John's wort) unless they can be replaced by another medication with minimal potential for CYP3A4 induction. Co-administration of CYP3A4/5 inducers may decrease plasma concentrations of axitinib.
  6. Need for anticoagulant therapy with oral vitamin K antagonists. Low doses of anticoagulants to maintain the patency of a central venous access device or to prevent deep vein thrombosis are permitted. Use with therapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparin is allowed.
  7. Clinically relevant history of bleeding in the last 6 months, including severe hemoptysis or hematuria, unless it has been due to a treated cause (e.g., completely resected bleeding intestinal tumor).
  8. Active epilepsy or evidence of brain metastases, spinal cord compression, or carcinomatous meningitis.
  9. Serious uncontrolled illness or active infections that may interfere with the patient's ability to receive the study treatment.
  10. Any of the following events in the 12 months prior to administration of the study drug: myocardial infarction, uncontrolled angina, implantation of a coronary or peripheral bypass, symptomatic congestive heart failure, stroke or transient ischemic attack. Deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism in the prior 6 months.
  11. Ongoing grade ≥ 2 cardiac arrhythmias according to NCI CTCAE: atrial fibrillation of any grade or QTc interval > 450 ms for men or > 470 ms for women.
  12. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related disease.
  13. Prior history of cancer except those treated with curative intent for non-melanoma skin cancer in situ, breast or cervical cancer in situ, or those treated for any cancer with curative intent and no evidence of disease in the last 5 years prior to enrollment in the study.
  14. Dementia or significantly altered mental status that could prevent compression, or submission of informed consent and compliance with the requirements of this protocol.
  15. Any severe, acute or chronic medical or psychiatric condition, or laboratory abnormality that may increase the risk associated with participation in the study or with study drug administration, or that may interfere with the interpretation of results, and that could interfere with the patient's ability to take part in this study in the investigator's opinion.
  16. The patient's participation or intention to participate (in the 4 weeks prior to starting drug administration) in a study in which the patient will receive an investigational medicinal product.
  17. Subjects who are institutionalized by governmental or by judicial decision, or subjects who are dependent of the sponsor, the investigator or the trial site will be excluded from participation.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01744249

Berlin Charité Universitätsmedizin
Berlin, Germany
Marburg Universitätsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH
Marburg, Germany, 35043
Klinikum rechts der Isar
München, Germany, 81675
Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria di Perugia Santa
Perugia, Italy, 06129
Sapienza, Universitá di Roma, Ospedale sant'Andrea
Rome, Italy, 00189
Hospital Central de Asturias
Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
Institut Català d'Oncologia L'Hospitalet
L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
Complejo Hospitalario Univ A Coruña
A Coruña, Spain
Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron
Barcelona, Spain
Hospital Universitario de Burgos
Burgos, Spain
Hospital Virgen de las Nieves
Granada, Spain
Hospital universitario de Leon
Leon, Spain
Hospital Clara Campal
Madrid, Spain
Hospital Clínico San Carlos
Madrid, Spain
Hospital Gregorio Marañón
Madrid, Spain
Hospital Univ La Paz
Madrid, Spain
Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre
Madrid, Spain
Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal
Madrid, Spain
Hospital Univ de Salamanca
Salamanca, Spain
Hospital de Donostia
San Sebastian, Spain
Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla
Santander, Spain
Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío
Sevilla, Spain
Hospital La Fe
Valencia, Spain
Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet
Zaragoza, Spain
United Kingdom
Clatterbridge Cancer Centre
Bebington, Wirral, United Kingdom, CH63 4JY
Queen Elisabeth Hospital Birmingham
Birmingham, United Kingdom, B15 2TH
Royal Free Hospital
London, United Kingdom, NW3 2QG
Sponsors and Collaborators
Grupo Espanol de Tumores Neuroendocrinos
Principal Investigator: Luis Antón Aparicio, MD Complejo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruña
Principal Investigator: Paula Jiménez Fonseca, MD Hospital Central de Asturias
Principal Investigator: Carlos López, MD Hospital Marques de Valdecilla
Principal Investigator: Vicente Alonso Orduña, MD Hospital Miguel Servet
Principal Investigator: Adelaida La Casta, MD Hospital de Donostia
Principal Investigator: Miguel Navarro, MD Hospital Universitario de Salamanca
Principal Investigator: Pilar Garcia Alfonso, MD Hospital Gregorio Marañón
Principal Investigator: Ana Custodio, MD Hospital Universitario La Paz
Principal Investigator: Encarnación González Flores, MD University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves
Study Director: Rocio Garcia Carbonero, MD Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre
Principal Investigator: Javier Sastre, MD Hospital Clínico San Carlos
Principal Investigator: Enrique Grande, MD Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal
Principal Investigator: Daniel Castellano, MD Hospital U 12 de Octubre
Principal Investigator: Jaume Capdevila, MD Hospital Vall d'Hebron
Principal Investigator: Alexandre Teulé Vega, MD ICO Hospitalet
Principal Investigator: Jesus Rodríguez Pascual, MD Hospital Clara Campal
Principal Investigator: Beatriz Nieto Mangudo, MD Hospital Universitario de León
Principal Investigator: Guillermo Crespo Herrero, MD Hospital Universitario de Burgos
Principal Investigator: Ángel Segura, MD Hospital La Fe
Principal Investigator: Marta Benavent Hospitales Universitarios Virgen del Rocío

Responsible Party: Grupo Espanol de Tumores Neuroendocrinos Identifier: NCT01744249     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: AXI-IIG-02
2011-001550-29 ( EudraCT Number )
First Posted: December 6, 2012    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: June 11, 2018
Last Verified: June 2018

Keywords provided by Grupo Espanol de Tumores Neuroendocrinos:
Advanced neuroendocrine tumours of non-pancreatic origin

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Neuroendocrine Tumors
Neuroectodermal Tumors
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue
Protein Kinase Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Gastrointestinal Agents
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
Antineoplastic Agents