Effect of Cheese on Cardiovascular Risk (ECCA)
The main objective of the current study is to examine whether a high intake of regular-fat cheeses (Danbo and Cheddar) affect blood lipids differently than an isocaloric intake of either other fatty animal food products or of starchy carbohydrates. Furthermore, effects on fat digestibility, blood pressure, anthropometry, bile acid metabolism and insulin sensitivity is investigated.
To do this, a randomized crossover intervention study with 3x14 days full diet periods (cheese diet, meat diet or carb diet)will be conducted in 16 postmenopausal women. Between the diet periods there will be at least 14 days of wash-out where the subjects eat their habitual diets. Fasting blood samples will be drawn before and after the diet periods, and also a non-fasting blood sample will be drawn after the diet periods. Furthermore, total feces is collected the last 5 days of each diet period.
Other: Dietary intervention: CHEESE (High cheese intake)
Other: Dietary intervention: MEAT (High Meat intake)
Other: Dietary intervention: CARB (High Carbohydrate intake)
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Prevention
|Official Title:||Effect of Cheese on Cardiovascular Risk|
- LDL cholesterol [ Time Frame: day 1 and day 14 in each diet period ]fasting, mmol/l
- Blood lipid concentrations [ Time Frame: day 1 and day 14 in each diet period ]
Total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Fasting, mmol/l.
Triglycerides. Fasting and non-fasting, mmol/l
- ApoA1 and ApoB [ Time Frame: day 1 and day 14 in each diet period ]
- Dietary fat digestibility [ Time Frame: During day 10-14 in each period ]
Fecal fat and energy excretion.
Total excretion of fecal fat (grams/day) and energy (kJ/day) averaged over five days
- Blood pressure [ Time Frame: day 1 and day 14 in each diet period ]mmHg
- Anthropometry [ Time Frame: day 1 and day 14 in each diet period ]waist to hip ratio, waist circumference and body weight
- Insulin sensitivity [ Time Frame: day 1 and 14 in each diet period ]Fasting and non-fasting glucose and insulin
- Bile acid metabolism [ Time Frame: day 14 of each intervention period ]Serum alpha-HC, fecal bile acid excretion
|Study Start Date:||January 2013|
|Study Completion Date:||November 2014|
|Primary Completion Date:||August 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: CARB diet
The CARB diet will be a low-fat diet where cheese is replaced by starchy carbohydrates and lean meat. The CARB diet will have the same protein content (15 E%) and quality as the CHEESE and MEAT diet but a lower fat content (approx. 25 E%) and a correspondingly higher carbohydrate content (approx. 60 E%).
|Other: Dietary intervention: CARB (High Carbohydrate intake)|
Experimental: CHEESE diet
The CHEESE diet will contain cheese in amounts corresponding to 120 g/day on a 10 MJ diet (approx. 1.8 MJ from cheese). A high dose of cheese is chosen to provoke effects within this short time frame. The cheese types used in this study will be Danbo (45+) and Cheddar (50+) which will be supplied in equal amounts. The CHEESE diet will have the same macronutrient composition as that of the average Danish diet (15 E% from protein, max 35 E% from fat, and max 15 E% from saturated fat).
|Other: Dietary intervention: CHEESE (High cheese intake)|
Experimental: MEAT diet
The MEAT diet will be a diet without dairy products. In this diet cheese is mainly replaced by high-fat mixed meat products to achieve saturated fat content and protein quality similar to that of the CHEESE diet. The MEAT diet will have the same macronutrient composition as that of the average Danish diet (15 E% from protein, max 35 E% from fat, and max 15 E% from saturated fat).
|Other: Dietary intervention: MEAT (High Meat intake)|
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01739153
|Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports|
|Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark, 1958|
|Principal Investigator:||Arne Astrup, Prof, MD||Head of Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports|