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Decitabine Followed by Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride, Etoposide, and Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01729845
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 20, 2012
Results First Posted : January 12, 2018
Last Update Posted : February 7, 2019
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Anna Halpern, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center

Brief Summary:
This phase I/II trial studies the side effects and best dose of decitabine followed by mitoxantrone hydrochloride, etoposide, and cytarabine and to see how well they work in treating patients with acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome that has returned after a period of improvement or does not respond to treatment. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as mitoxantrone hydrochloride, etoposide, cytarabine, and decitabine, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Giving more than one drug (combination chemotherapy) may kill more cancer cells.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Drug: Cytarabine Drug: Decitabine Drug: Etoposide Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis Drug: Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride Phase 1 Phase 2

Detailed Description:


I. Estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of decitabine priming followed by sequential mitoxantrone hydrochloride/etoposide/cytarabine (MEC) chemotherapy in adults with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML).


I. Determine, within the limits of a Phase 1/2 study, disease response and duration of remission.

II. Identify biomarkers (e.g., deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA] methylation and/or gene expression changes) associated with treatment responses.

OUTLINE: This is a phase I, dose-escalation study of decitabine followed by a phase II study.

Patients receive decitabine intravenously (IV) on days -9 to -5 (dose level 1), days -11 to -5 (dose level 2), or days -14 to -5 (dose level 3).

INDUCTION THERAPY: Patients receive mitoxantrone hydrochloride IV on days 1-5, etoposide IV on days 1-5, and cytarabine IV on days 1-5. Patients achieving complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete platelet count recovery (CRp) may receive up to 2 courses of induction therapy and up to 2 courses of consolidation therapy.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up every 3 months for up to 5 years.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 52 participants
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Mitoxantrone, Etoposide, and Cytarabine (MEC) Following Epigenetic Priming With Decitabine in Adults With Relapsed/Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) or High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS): A Phase 1/2 Study
Actual Study Start Date : December 20, 2012
Actual Primary Completion Date : August 25, 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : April 3, 2017

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Treatment (decitabine, MEC)

Patients receive decitabine IV on days -9 to -5 (dose level 1), days -11 to -5 (dose level 2), or days -14 to -5 (dose level 3).

INDUCTION THERAPY: Patients receive mitoxantrone hydrochloride IV on days 1-5, etoposide IV on days 1-5, and cytarabine IV on days 1-5. Patients achieving CR or CR with CRp may receive up to 2 courses of induction therapy and up to 2 courses of consolidation therapy.

Drug: Cytarabine
Given IV
Other Names:
  • .beta.-Cytosine arabinoside
  • 1-.beta.-D-Arabinofuranosyl-4-amino-2(1H)pyrimidinone
  • 1-.beta.-D-Arabinofuranosylcytosine
  • 1-Beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-4-amino-2(1H)pyrimidinone
  • 1-Beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine
  • 1.beta.-D-Arabinofuranosylcytosine
  • 2(1H)-Pyrimidinone, 4-Amino-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-
  • 2(1H)-Pyrimidinone, 4-amino-1.beta.-D-arabinofuranosyl-
  • Alexan
  • Ara-C
  • ARA-cell
  • Arabine
  • Arabinofuranosylcytosine
  • Arabinosylcytosine
  • Aracytidine
  • Aracytin
  • Aracytine
  • Beta-Cytosine Arabinoside
  • CHX-3311
  • Cytarabinum
  • Cytarbel
  • Cytosar
  • Cytosar-U
  • Cytosine Arabinoside
  • Cytosine-.beta.-arabinoside
  • Cytosine-beta-arabinoside
  • Erpalfa
  • Starasid
  • Tarabine PFS
  • U 19920
  • U-19920
  • Udicil
  • WR-28453

Drug: Decitabine
Given IV
Other Names:
  • 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine
  • Dacogen
  • Decitabine for Injection
  • Deoxyazacytidine
  • Dezocitidine

Drug: Etoposide
Given IV
Other Names:
  • Demethyl Epipodophyllotoxin Ethylidine Glucoside
  • EPEG
  • Lastet
  • Toposar
  • Vepesid
  • VP 16-213
  • VP-16
  • VP-16-213

Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis
Correlative studies

Drug: Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride
Given IV
Other Names:
  • CL 232315
  • DHAD
  • DHAQ
  • Dihydroxyanthracenedione Dihydrochloride
  • Mitoxantrone Dihydrochloride
  • Mitoxantroni Hydrochloridum
  • Mitozantrone Hydrochloride
  • Mitroxone
  • Neotalem
  • Novantrone
  • Onkotrone
  • Pralifan

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Most Efficacious and Tolerated Dosage of Decitabine (Period 1) [ Time Frame: through day 45 ]
    MTD (most tolerated dose) of decitabine, measured in number of dose limiting toxicities. MTD defined as the highest dose in which the incidence of dose limiting toxicity is < 33%, graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (Phase I)

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Remission Rate Including CR and CRp [ Time Frame: Up to 5 years ]

    Complete remission (CR) and Complete remission with incomplete platelet recovery (CRp) categorized according to criteria recommended by International Working Groups:

    Complete resolution of disease-related symptoms and signs including palpable hepatosplenomegaly; hemoglobin level at least 110 g/L, platelet count at least 100x10^9/L, and absolute neutrophil count at least 1.0 x10^9/L. In addition, all 3 blood counts should be no higher than the upper normal limit; Normal leukocyte differential; Bone marrow histologic remission defined as the presence of age-adjusted normocellularity, no more than 5% myeloblasts, and an osteomyelofibrosis grade no higher than 1.

  2. Duration of Relapse-free Survival (for Patients Achieving CR or CRp) [ Time Frame: Up to 5 years ]
    Categorized according to criteria recommended by International Working Groups.

  3. Overall Survival [ Time Frame: Up to 5 years ]
    Survival measured as of day of last contact. Categorized according to criteria recommended by International Working Groups.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Prior diagnosis of "high-risk" myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (>= 10% blasts) or AML other than acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with t(15;17) (q22;q12) or variants according to the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) classification; patients with biphenotypic AML are eligible
  • Relapsed/persistent disease according to standard criteria requiring salvage therapy; outside diagnostic material is acceptable as long as peripheral blood and/or bone marrow slides are reviewed at the study institution; flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood and/or bone marrow should be performed according to institutional practice guidelines
  • Patients with prior autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are eligible if relapse occurs provided symptoms of graft-versus host disease are well controlled with stable use of immunosuppressive agents
  • Treatment-related mortality (TRM) score =< 9.2 as calculated with simplified model
  • Should be off any active therapy for AML with the exception of hydroxyurea for at least 14 days prior to study registration unless patient has rapidly progressive disease, and all grade 2-4 non-hematologic toxicities should have resolved
  • May have previously received monotherapy with demethylating agents for MDS or AML
  • May have previously received chemotherapy with MEC for MDS or AML
  • Patients with symptoms/signs of hyperleukocytosis or white blood cells (WBC) > 100,000/uL can be treated with leukapheresis or may receive up to 2 doses of cytarabine (up to 500 mg/m^2/dose) prior to enrollment
  • Bilirubin =< 2 x institutional upper limit of normal (IULN) unless elevation is thought to be due to hepatic infiltration by AML, Gilbert's syndrome, or hemolysis (assessed within 7 days prior to study day 1)
  • Serum creatinine =< 1.5 x IULN (assessed within 7 days prior to study day 1)
  • Left ventricular ejection fraction >= 40%, assessed within 3 months prior to study day 1, e.g. by multi gated acquisition (MUGA) scan or echocardiography, or other appropriate diagnostic modality and no clinical evidence of congestive heart failure; if the patient had anthracycline-based therapy since the most recent cardiac assessment, cardiac evaluation should be repeated if there is clinical or radiographical suspicion of cardiac dysfunction, or if the previous cardiac assessment was abnormal
  • Women of childbearing potential and men must agree to use adequate contraception
  • Provide written informed consent

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Refractory/relapsing myeloid blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), unless patient is not considered candidate for tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment
  • Concomitant illness associated with a likely survival of < 1 year
  • Active systemic fungal, bacterial, viral, or other infection, unless disease is under treatment with anti-microbials and/or controlled or stable (e.g. if specific, effective therapy is not available/feasible or desired [e.g. chronic viral hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)]); patient needs to be clinically stable as defined as being afebrile and hemodynamically stable for 24 hours; patients with fever thought to be likely secondary to leukemia are eligible
  • Known hypersensitivity to any study drug
  • Pregnancy or lactation
  • Patients may not be receiving any other investigational agents

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01729845

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United States, Washington
Kadlec Clinic Hematology and Oncology
Kennewick, Washington, United States, 99336
EvergreenHealth Medical Center
Kirkland, Washington, United States, 98033
Fred Hutch/University of Washington Cancer Consortium
Seattle, Washington, United States, 98109
Sponsors and Collaborators
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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Principal Investigator: Anna Halpern Fred Hutch/University of Washington Cancer Consortium

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Responsible Party: Anna Halpern, Principal Investigator, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Identifier: NCT01729845     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 2652.00
NCI-2012-02224 ( Registry Identifier: CTRP (Clinical Trial Reporting Program) )
2652.00 ( Other Identifier: Fred Hutch/University of Washington Cancer Consortium )
P30CA015704 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: November 20, 2012    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: January 12, 2018
Last Update Posted: February 7, 2019
Last Verified: February 2019

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Leukemia, Myeloid
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Pathologic Processes
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Bone Marrow Diseases
Hematologic Diseases
Precancerous Conditions
Etoposide phosphate
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
Antineoplastic Agents
Topoisomerase II Inhibitors
Topoisomerase Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Immunosuppressive Agents