Green Vegetables and Women's Health
The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that individuals consume 4.5 to 5 cups fruits and vegetables daily. However, at current intake levels, fruit consumption will have to improve by more than 100% and vegetable intake by 50% to meet this recommendation. Importantly, intake of brightly colored fruits and vegetables is even lower when potatoes are not considered. It is possible that improved fruit and vegetable intake will have beneficial health effects. For example, higher intakes of fruits and vegetables, and particularly cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, etc.), are associated with lower rates of many degenerative diseases, including some cancers, yet this group of vegetables may continue to be under-consumed due to their strong flavors. A supplement made from these vegetables (Cruciferous CompleteTM made by Standard Process Inc. Palmyra, WI) contains a group of phytochemicals called glucosinolates that can shift estrogen metabolism in a favorable way. One proposed biomarker of chemoprotection from breast cancer is the urinary estrogen metabolite ratio of 2- to 16α-hydroxyestrogens (2:16). In the main study, the effects of cruciferous vegetables (broccoli or Brussels sprouts), Cruciferous CompleteTM whole food supplements, or placebos on this ratio of urinary estrogen metabolites in healthy premenopausal women will be compared over an eight-week period. The investigators hypothesize that treatment with daily supplements will increase the 2:16 ratio as compared to daily consumption of a combination of Brussels sprouts and broccoli or a placebo, suggesting reduced breast cancer risk.
In a sub-study, the relationships between serum α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and lycopene with dietary carotenoid intake as measured by a food frequency questionnaire and body composition will be evaluated in healthy premenopausal women. Carotenoids are a family of lipophilic compounds found primarily in colorful plant tissues and their concentration in human blood reflects dietary intake of carotenoid-rich foods. Carotenoid levels in the blood of healthy women do not appear to be influenced by menstrual status, but are inversely associated with body fatness. Thus, serum carotenoid concentrations may serve as a functional marker for chronic disease risk associated with excess body fat.
Other: Broccoli and Brussels Sprouts
Dietary Supplement: Cruciferous Complete
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Participant, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Screening
|Official Title:||Effect of Cruciferous Vegetables or a Cruciferous Supplement on Urinary Estrogen Metabolites in Premenopausal Women|
- Urinary 2:16 ratio [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]Urinary 2:16 ratios between treatment groups.
- Urinary 4OHE1 and 4OHE2 [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]Urinary concentrations of 4-hydroxyestrone (4OHE1) and 4-hydroxyestradiol (4OHE2) between treatment groups.
- Body composition [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]Association between body composition, urinary 2:16 ratio, and urinary 4OHE metabolites.
- Stability of urinary 2:16 ratio. [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]Change in the urinary 2:16 ratio over 8 weeks in the placebo group.
- Sub-study: Serum carotenoids and dietary intake [ Time Frame: One blood draw on one day ]Correlation between serum α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and lycopene and dietary intake.
- Sub-study: Serum carotenoids and body composition [ Time Frame: One blood draw on one day ]Correlation between serum carotenoids and body composition.
- Dietary Intake [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]Association between dietary intake, urinary 2:16 ratio, and urinary 4OHE metabolites.
|Study Start Date:||November 2012|
|Study Completion Date:||September 2015|
|Primary Completion Date:||September 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Broccoli and Brussels Sprouts
Subjects will consume broccoli or Brussels sprouts (40g daily) for 8 weeks.
|Other: Broccoli and Brussels Sprouts|
Experimental: Cruciferous Complete
Subjects will take Cruciferous CompleteTM supplements (2 capsules, 3 times daily) for 8 weeks.
|Dietary Supplement: Cruciferous Complete|
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Subjects will take placebo capsules (2 capsules, 3 times daily) for 8 weeks.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01726127
|United States, Wisconsin|
|University of Wisconsin Osteoporosis Clinical Research Program Clinic|
|Madison, Wisconsin, United States, 53705|
|Principal Investigator:||Sherry A. Tanumihardjo, PhD||University of Wisconsin, Madison|
|Principal Investigator:||Neil Binkley, MD||University of Wisconsin, Madison|