Acetaminophen's Efficacy For Post-operative Pain
|Tonsillitis Airway Obstruction Difficulty Swallowing||Drug: IV acetaminophen Drug: PO acetaminophen||Phase 4|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Care Provider)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Efficacy of IV vs Oral Administration of Acetaminophen for Pain Control Following Tonsillectomy With or Without Adenoidectomy|
- Total Pain Medication [ Time Frame: From time of PACU admission until 24 hours post-operatively. ]All pain medication documented during the first 24 hours postoperatively, in mg morphine equivalents.
- FLACC: Face, Legs, Activity, Cry & Consolability (FLACC) Pain Assessment Scores [ Time Frame: At time of admission into PACU. ]FLACC: Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability Pain Assessment Scale (FLACC), a five-item, three point scale that measures each of 5 pain behaviors on a scale of 0 - 2 which are summed to result in a total score of 0 - 10. Clinical judgment is used to interpret pain. The higher the score on the FLACC correlates with a higher pain score (0= no behaviors indicative of pain and 10= five behaviors indicative of significant pain). This scale was evaluated by blinded post-operative anesthesia care unit (PACU) Registered Nurses (RNs) at admission to PACU.
- Incidence of Post-operative Vomiting [ Time Frame: From admission into PACU until 24 hours post-hospital discharge. At the conclusion of enrollment, this measure will be assessed for all participants. ]Percentage of subjects with at least one episode of post-operative vomiting
- Parental Satisfaction With Pain Control. [ Time Frame: 24 hours post hospital discharge. ]Parental satisfaction with pain control, as measured on a 10 point Likert scale where 1= Extremely dissatisfied and 10= Extremely satisfied. Data gathered through phone call to parents 24 hours post hospital discharge.
|Study Start Date:||September 2012|
|Study Completion Date:||January 2015|
|Primary Completion Date:||September 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Study Group
IV acetaminophen 15 mg/kg (up to 1000 mg) administered intraoperatively over a 15 minute infusion.
Drug: IV acetaminophen
IV acetaminophen 15 mg/kg (up to 1000 mg) over 15 minute infusion after IV placement in OR .
Other Name: Ofirmev
Active Comparator: Control Group
PO acetaminophen elixir 15 mg/kg (up to 1000 mg) administered approximately 90 minutes (+/- 30 minutes) prior to induction of anesthesia in the pre-operative area.
Drug: PO acetaminophen
PO acetaminophen elixir 15 mg/kg (up to 1000 mg) administered approximately 90 minutes (+/- 30minutes) prior to induction of anesthesia in the pre-operative area.
Other Name: Acetaminophen Elixir
Tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy is a common surgical procedure in children and adolescents. Usually performed for recurrent tonsillitis or symptoms of airway obstruction, the procedure can result in significant post-operative pain. Common analgesic techniques include the use of oral acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen by mouth (PO) or ketorolac intravenous (IV), and narcotics. Acetaminophen has been shown to be effective in reducing pain and post-operative opioid requirements. Its administration can be oral, rectal, or intravenous. NSAIDs, though effective for pain control, have been shown to increase bleeding risk and disrupt hemostasis. Narcotics are effective for pain control but increase the risk of nausea and vomiting. They also have the potential to cause respiratory depression.
IV acetaminophen (OFIRMEV) is indicated for management of mild to moderate pain, and as an adjunct to opioids for severe pain. Several studies have examined the efficacy of IV acetaminophen vs placebo and/or active controls (meperidine, rectal acetaminophen (PR), tramadol). IV acetaminophen has been shown to be superior to placebo for pain control. Though there is data regarding peak plasma and Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) concentration of acetaminophen when given by different routes (PO vs IV vs PR), there is no data comparing the efficacy of oral vs IV administration for pain control post-tonsillectomy in children.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01721486
|United States, Michigan|
|Beaumont Health System|
|Royal Oak, Michigan, United States, 48073|
|Principal Investigator:||Kaveh Aslani, MD||William Beaumont Hospitals|