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Cabozantinib S-Malate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Solid Tumors

This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Cancer Institute (NCI) Identifier:
First received: October 16, 2012
Last updated: May 23, 2017
Last verified: May 2017
This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of cabozantinib S-malate in treating younger patients with solid tumors that have come back or no longer respond to treatment. Cabozantinib S-malate may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth.

Condition Intervention Phase
Childhood Solid Neoplasm
Childhood Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma
Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Neoplasm
Recurrent Malignant Solid Neoplasm
Recurrent Melanoma
Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma
Drug: Cabozantinib S-malate
Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis
Other: Pharmacological Study
Phase 1

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: No masking
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase 1 Study of XL184 (Cabozantinib) in Children and Adolescents With Recurrent or Refractory Solid Tumors, Including CNS Tumors

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by National Cancer Institute (NCI):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • MTD and/or recommended phase 2 dose of cabozantinib S-malate, graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 [ Time Frame: 28 days ]
    In addition to determination of the MTD, a descriptive summary of all toxicities will be reported.

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Disease response assessed according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [ Time Frame: Up to 5 years ]
    Will be reported descriptively.

  • Overall survival (OS) [ Time Frame: Up to 5 years ]
    OS will also be assessed and summarized using the Kaplan-Meier method.

  • Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of cabozantinib S-malate including systemic exposure and drug clearance [ Time Frame: Course 1, day 1 (pre-dose and 4 hours post dose), course 1 day 21 (+/- 2 days) (pre-dose, 2, 4, 8 and 24 hours post dose), course 3 day 1 (pre-dose) ]
    Will be summarized with simple summary statistics, including means, medians, ranges, and standard deviations (if numbers and distribution permit). PK parameters will be summarized with simple summary statistics, including means, medians, ranges, and standard deviations (if numbers and distribution permit).

Estimated Enrollment: 41
Actual Study Start Date: November 14, 2012
Estimated Primary Completion Date: October 31, 2017 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Treatment (cabozantinib S-malate)
Patients receive cabozantinib S-malate PO QD on days 1-28. Courses repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
Drug: Cabozantinib S-malate
Given PO
Other Names:
  • BMS-907351
  • Cabometyx
  • Cometriq
  • XL184
Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis
Correlative studies
Other: Pharmacological Study
Correlative studies

Detailed Description:


I. To estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and/or recommended phase 2 dose of XL184 (cabozantinib) (cabozantinib S-malate) administered orally to children with refractory solid tumors including central nervous system (CNS) tumors.

II. To define and describe the toxicities of XL184 (cabozantinib) administered on this schedule.

III. To characterize the pharmacokinetics of XL184 (cabozantinib) in children with refractory solid tumors.


I. To preliminarily define the antitumor activity of XL184 (cabozantinib) within the confines of a phase 1 study.

II. To assess the biologic activity of XL184 (cabozantinib). III. To assess the biomarker response (carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA] and calcitonin) in patients with medullary thyroid cancer treated with XL184.

IV. To evaluate overall survival from study entry through a five-year follow-up period.

OUTLINE: This is a dose-escalation study. (Complete as of 4/16/2014)

Patients receive cabozantinib S-malate orally (PO) once daily (QD) on days 1-28. Courses repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up at 30 days, 6 months, and then annually for up to 60 months.


Ages Eligible for Study:   2 Years to 18 Years   (Child, Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Patients must have a body surface area >= 0.44 m^2 when enrolling on dose level -1; patients must have a body surface area >= 0.35 m^2 when enrolling on dose level 1, 2, or 3
  • PART A: Patients with relapsed or refractory solid tumors (excluding medullary thyroid cancer) including CNS tumors and malignant melanoma are eligible; patients must have had histologic verification of malignancy at original diagnosis or relapse except in patients with intrinsic brain stem tumors, optic pathway gliomas, or patients with pineal tumors and elevations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum tumor markers including alpha-fetoprotein or beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
  • Part B: Patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), with or without bone marrow involvement, will be eligible for Part B; these patients will be enrolled at dose level 2, the recommended phase 2 dose determined in the dose escalation part of the study
  • Patients must have either measurable or evaluable disease
  • Patient's current disease state must be one for which there is no known curative therapy or therapy proven to prolong survival with an acceptable quality of life
  • Karnofsky >= 50% for patients > 16 years of age and Lansky >= 50 for patients =< 16 years of age

    • Note: neurologic deficits in patients with CNS tumors must have been relatively stable for at least 7 days prior to study enrollment; patients who are unable to walk because of paralysis, but who are up in a wheelchair, will be considered ambulatory for the purpose of assessing the performance score
  • Patients must have fully recovered from the acute toxic effects of all prior anti-cancer chemotherapy:

    • Myelosuppressive chemotherapy: at least 21 days after the last dose of myelosuppressive chemotherapy (42 days if prior nitrosourea)
    • Hematopoietic growth factors: at least 14 days after the last dose of a long-acting growth factor (e.g. Neulasta) or 7 days for short-acting growth factor; for agents that have known adverse events occurring beyond 7 days after administration, this period must be extended beyond the time during which adverse events are known to occur; the duration of this interval must be discussed with the study chair
    • Biologic (anti-neoplastic agent): at least 7 days after the last dose of a biologic agent; for agents that have known adverse events occurring beyond 7 days after administration, this period must be extended beyond the time during which adverse events are known to occur; the duration of this interval must be discussed with the study chair
    • Immunotherapy: at least 42 days after the completion of any type of immunotherapy, e.g. tumor vaccines
    • Monoclonal antibodies: at least 3 half-lives of the antibody after the last dose of a monoclonal antibody
    • Radiation therapy (XRT): at least 14 days after local palliative XRT (small port); at least 150 days must have elapsed if prior total-body irradiation (TBI), craniospinal XRT or if >= 50% radiation of pelvis; at least 42 days must have elapsed if other substantial bone marrow (BM) radiation
    • Stem cell infusion without TBI: no evidence of active graft vs. host disease and at least 56 days must have elapsed after transplant or stem cell infusion
  • For patients with solid tumors without known bone marrow involvement:
  • Peripheral absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >= 1000/mm^3
  • Platelet count >= 100,000/mm^3 (transfusion independent, defined as not receiving platelet transfusions for at least 7 days prior to enrollment)
  • Patients with known bone marrow metastatic disease will be eligible for study provided they meet the blood counts (may receive transfusions provided they are not known to be refractory to red cell or platelet transfusions); these patients will not be evaluable for hematologic toxicity; at least 5 of every cohort of 6 patients with a solid tumor must be evaluable for hematologic toxicity in the dose-escalation part of the study; if dose-limiting hematologic toxicity is observed, all subsequent patients enrolled must be evaluable for hematologic toxicity
  • Creatinine clearance or radioisotope glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >= 70 ml/min/1.73 m^2 or a serum creatinine based on age/gender as follows:

    • 2 to < 6 years: 0.8 mg/dL
    • 6 to < 10 years: 1 mg/dL
    • 10 to < 13 years: 1.2 mg/dL
    • 13 to < 16 years: 1.5 mg/dL (male), 1.4 mg/dL (female)
    • >= 16 years: 1.7 mg/dL (male), 1.4 mg/dL (female)
  • Urine protein: =< 30 mg/dl in urinalysis or =< 1+ on dipstick, unless quantitative protein is < 1000 mg in a 24 hour (h) urine sample
  • Bilirubin (sum of conjugated + unconjugated) =< 1.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN) for age
  • Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) (alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) =< 110 U/L; for the purpose of this study, the ULN for SGPT is 45 U/L
  • Serum albumin >= 2.8 g/dL
  • Prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR) =< 1.5 x ULN
  • Serum amylase =< 1.5 x ULN
  • Serum lipase =< 1.5 x ULN
  • A blood pressure (BP) =< the 95th percentile for age, height, and gender, and not receiving medication for treatment of hypertension; please note that 3 serial blood pressures should be obtained and averaged to determine baseline BP
  • Central nervous system function defined as: patients with seizure disorder may be enrolled if receiving non-enzyme inducing anticonvulsants and well controlled
  • No history of congenital prolonged corrected QT interval (QTc) syndrome, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV congestive heart failure (CHF)
  • No clinically significant cardiac arrhythmias, stroke or myocardial infarction within 6 months prior to enrollment
  • QTc =< 480 msec; Note: patients with grade 1 prolonged QTc (450-480 msec) at the time of study enrollment should have correctable causes of prolonged QTc addressed if possible (i.e. electrolytes, medications)
  • All patients and/or their parents or legally authorized representatives must sign a written informed consent; assent, when appropriate, will be obtained according to institutional guidelines
  • Archival tumor tissue slides from either initial diagnosis or relapse must be sent; if tumor tissue is unavailable, the study chair must be notified prior to enrollment

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Pregnant or breast-feeding women will not be entered on this study; pregnancy tests must be obtained in girls who are post-menarchal; males or females of reproductive potential may not participate unless they have agreed to use two methods of birth control - a medically accepted barrier method of contraceptive method (e.g., male or female condom) and a second effective contraceptive method of birth control - during protocol therapy and for at least 4 months after the last dose of XL184; abstinence is an acceptable method of birth control
  • Patients receiving corticosteroids who have not been on a stable or decreasing dose of corticosteroid for at least 7 days prior to enrollment are not eligible
  • Patients who are currently receiving another investigational drug are not eligible
  • Patients who are currently receiving other anti-cancer agents are not eligible
  • Patients who are receiving cyclosporine, tacrolimus or other agents to prevent graft-versus-host disease post bone marrow transplant are not eligible for this trial
  • Patients must not be receiving any of the following potent cytochrome P450 family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 4 cytochrome (CYP3A4) inducers or inhibitors: erythromycin, clarithromycin, ketoconazole, azithromycin, itraconazole, grapefruit juice or St. John's wort
  • Patients who are receiving systemic treatment anticoagulation are not eligible; patients receiving prophylactic systemic anticoagulation will be allowed as long as eligibility PT/INR requirements are met
  • Patients must not have received enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants within 14 days prior to enrollment
  • Patients who are receiving drugs that prolong QTc are not eligible
  • Patients must be able to swallow intact tablets; patients who cannot swallow intact tablets are not eligible
  • Patients with active bleeding are not eligible; specifically, no clinically significant gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, GI perforation, intra-abdominal abscess or fistula for 6 months prior to enrollment, no hemoptysis or other signs of pulmonary hemorrhage for 3 months prior to enrollment
  • Patients with evidence of an acute intracranial or intratumoral hemorrhage on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are not eligible (patients with evidence of resolving hemorrhage will be eligible)
  • Patients who have had or are planning to have the following invasive procedures are not eligible:

    • Major surgical procedure, laparoscopic procedure, open biopsy or significant traumatic injury within 28 days prior to enrollment
    • Central line placement or subcutaneous port placement is not considered major surgery but must be placed at least 3 days prior to enrollment for external lines (e.g. Hickman or Broviac) and at least 7 days prior to enrollment for subcutaneous port
    • Core biopsy within 7 days prior to enrollment
    • Fine needle aspirate within 7 days prior to enrollment
    • Surgical or other wounds must be adequately healed prior to enrollment
  • Patients on antihypertensive therapy for control of blood pressure at the time of enrollment are not eligible
  • Patients with any medical or surgical conditions that would interfere with gastrointestinal absorption of this oral agent are not eligible
  • Patients who have an uncontrolled infection are not eligible
  • Patients who have received a prior solid organ transplantation are not eligible
  • Patients who in the opinion of the investigator may not be able to comply with the safety monitoring requirements of the study are not eligible
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01709435

  Show 22 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Principal Investigator: Meredith Chuk COG Phase I Consortium
  More Information

Responsible Party: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Identifier: NCT01709435     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: NCI-2012-01890
NCI-2012-01890 ( Registry Identifier: CTRP (Clinical Trial Reporting Program) )
ADVL1211 ( Other Identifier: COG Phase I Consortium )
ADVL1211 ( Other Identifier: CTEP )
UM1CA097452 ( US NIH Grant/Contract Award Number )
Study First Received: October 16, 2012
Last Updated: May 23, 2017

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Thyroid Diseases
Thyroid Neoplasms
Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine
Nervous System Neoplasms
Carcinoma, Medullary
Central Nervous System Neoplasms
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Endocrine System Diseases
Endocrine Gland Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Head and Neck Neoplasms
Neuroendocrine Tumors
Neuroectodermal Tumors
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue
Nervous System Diseases
Neoplasms, Ductal, Lobular, and Medullary processed this record on May 24, 2017