Anti-EGFR Immunoliposomes in Solid Tumors
Background: Site-specific delivery of anti-cancer therapeutics is paramount for both reducing nonspecific toxicities and increasing efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to their small molecular size and nonspecific mechanisms of action, most conventional chemotherapies result in significant toxicities that limit the effectiveness of treatment and reduce the overall quality of life for cancer patients. Encapsulation of these toxic agents inside lipid-based carrier systems (so-called liposomes) results in passive targeting of the compounds to solid tumors. The preferential delivery of liposomal drugs to solid tumors is mostly due to altered barrier-properties of tumor-associated vessels. This results in both an improved delivery and at the same time a significantly milder toxicity profile. Recently, the specificity of delivery was further increased by attaching monoclonal antibodies or antibody fragments to the surface of liposomes (=immunoliposomes, antibody-linked nanoparticles). Antibody-coated immunoliposomes attach more selectively to antigens expressed on the target cells and they are internalized more efficiently. Furthermore, there is evidence that drug resistance, a major challenge in cancer treatment, may be overcome by such delivery systems. A logical and accessible target, such as EGFR, is overexpressed on a variety of primary human cancer cells and it is involved in signaling pathways that contribute both to tumor initiation and tumor progression. Recently, the investigators have tested immunoliposomes against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in a preclinical setting. Based on the preclinical results we have initiated this phase I clinical trial.
Study hypothesis: The investigators hypothesize that anti-EGFR-immunoliposomes selectively deliver cytotoxic compounds to EGFR-overexpressing tumors cells. Specific delivery is supposed to increase efficacy while reducing side-effects of the compound. The primary objective of this phase 1 trial is the determination of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for future phase 2 trials of this nanoparticle.
Drug: anti-EGFR immunoliposomes loaded with doxorubicin
|Study Design:||Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||A Phase I Study of Doxorubicin-loaded Anti-EGFR Immunoliposomes in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors|
- Determination of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) [ Time Frame: after completion of the 1st cycle (day 28) ]The MTD is defined through the occurrence of two dose limiting toxicities (DLTs) at a specific dose level. DLT are defined as any grade 4 toxicity, any grade 3 toxicity lasting more than one week or/and febrile neutropenia grade 3 (defined as neutrophils < 1.0 x 10e9/l and fever > 38.5 °C). Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and alopecia (grade 2) will be excluded as dose limiting toxicities. Similarly, adverse events that are clearly related to the primary tumor, such as progression of disease will not be considered as DLTs.
- CT scans for efficacy [ Time Frame: every 2 months for 6 months and then every 3 months for a total of one year ]
|Study Start Date:||January 2007|
|Study Completion Date:||March 2010|
|Primary Completion Date:||March 2010 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: anti-EGFR Immunoliposomes
anti-EGFR immunoliposomes loaded with doxorubicin. Dose escalating study. 3 patients per dose level. Dose levels: 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mg doxorubicin/m2.
Drug: anti-EGFR immunoliposomes loaded with doxorubicin
All patients were treated with anti-EGFR immunoliposomes Different dose levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mg doxorubicin/m2), at least 3 patients per dose level, treatment was given every 4 weeks
This is a phase 1 trial of anti-EGFR-immunoliposomes, an investigative nanoparticle targeted against EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. The investigators have constructed anti-EGFR immunoliposomes by using Fab' fragments of the chimeric MAb cetuximab (C225, cetuximab, erbitux™, ImClone Systems Corp., NY, USA; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany), which were covalently conjugated to the liposome membrane. This approach was designed to provide maximal drug delivery to cancer cells via a receptor-targeted and internalizing drug carrier that is stable, non-immunogenic, long-lived with extended blood and tissue residence times and capable of delivering large payloads of diverse types of drugs.
Based on extensive preclinical studies, the investigators decided to perform a first-in-human clinical trial in patients with EGFR-overexpressing solid tumors who have already received all available standard treatments. The therapeutic compound tested in the trial is C225-ILs-dox, a doxorubicin-loaded anti-EGFR-immunoliposome. Doxorubicin is one of the most active agents in many human tumors, and a high percentage of these malignancies do express EGFR. Therefore, the targeting of doxorubicin to EGFR-expressing tumors via the EGFR-specific antibody C225 should enhance the specificity and efficacy of chemotherapy, while the encapsulation of the cytotoxic drug within pegylated liposomes should at the same time decrease its toxicity.
This is a single center, open study. The aim of the trial is the definition of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for future phase 2 studies. Secondary endpoints include the overall response rate, the time-to-progression and the assessment of the pharmakokinetic of the compound. The trials follows a canonical 3+3 design and allows an additional recruitment of up to 6 patients on the dose level defined as the MTD. Planned dose levels are as follows:
Level 1 = 5 mg/m2 Level 2 = 10 mg/m2 Level 3 = 20 mg/m2 Level 4 = 30 mg/m2 Level 5 = 40 mg/m2 Level 6 = 50 mg/m2 Level 7 = 60 mg/m2 Level 8 = 70 mg/m2 Level 9 = 80 mg/m2
At each dose level, 3 patients may be enrolled simultaneously. Escalation to the next higher dose will be allowed after patient 3 of a given dose level has received at least one full cycle of therapy if no dose limiting toxicity (DLT) occured at a given dose level. The decision to enter a next dose level will be made by the study team after reviewing all available toxicity data of the previous groups. A DLT is defined as any grade 4 toxicity, any grade 3 toxicity lasting more than one week or/and febrile neutropenia grade 3 (defined as neutrophils < 1.0 x 10e9/l and fever > 38.5 °C). Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and alopecia (grade 2) will be excluded as dose limiting toxicities. Similarly, adverse events that are clearly related to the primary tumor, such as progression of disease will not be considered as DLTs. In addition, preexisting toxicities must be taken into account when defining and analyzing DLTs.
Patients will be treated until disease progression but for a maximum of 6 cycles. Patients having completed the treatment phase (24 weeks) and showing complete or partial response as well as stable disease will enter the observation phase of the study. This phase will end 12 months after the last patient has been included. At any time during treatment phase or observation phase, patients with signs of disease progression according to RECIST criteria for reporting results of cancer treatment or having discontinued treatment due to unacceptable toxicity will go off study and be treated at the investigator's discretion.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01702129
|Basel, Switzerland, 4031|
|Principal Investigator:||Christoph Mamot, MD||Cantonal Hospital of Aarau, Switzerland|