Physical Training and the Incretin Effect (EXINT2)
It is well known that continuous physical exercise leads to a number of changes in the body. Maximal oxygen uptake; the heart's pumping ability and muscle mass and strength increases. Also the metabolism adapts: The ability to oxidize fat increase and the insulin sensitivity in primarily in muscle, but also in the liver increase.
Also endocrine glands adapts according to the level of physical activity. It is known that in healthy, younger people the insulin secretion from the pancreas after administration of sugar consumed orally or given directly into a vein, is significantly lower in trained individuals compared with untrained. This change does, however, not only apply to glucose, as also stimulation by the amino acid arginine, shows the same pattern.
It seems plausible that the endocrine glands/cells adapts to the level of physical training, but this has not yet been investigated.
The gastrointestinal tract is the birthplace of a variety of hormones. One group of these is called incretin hormones. They stimulate the glucose dependant insulin secretion in the pancreas and affect hunger/satiety. Whether the incretin production and thus their concentration in the blood is regulated by physical training is unknown.
Obese and patients with type 2 diabetes, has, in contrast to well-trained, decreased insulin sensitivity. As a consequence their (type 2 diabetics, at least early in their disease course) meal stimulated insulin release is greater than in healthy, normal weight individuals. This in spite of the fact that the incretin effect is reduced in obese people and patients with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy, normal weight.
Whether physical training affects both the secretion of incretins and the incretin effect has not yet been studied.
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether incretin hormones in physical well-trained young men have a changed effect on insulin secretion from the pancreas compared to untrained young men. A difference may indicate that the body's endocrine glands adapts to training mode.
The investigators hypothesis is that incretin hormones have a decreased effect on the glucose dependant insulin release in physically trained persons and thus results in a lower insulin release at any given plasma glucose level.
|Study Design:||Observational Model: Case-Crossover
Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
|Official Title:||Does Physical Training Effect the Incretin Effect|
- Incretin Effect (the % of Insulin Secreted Due to the Release of the Intestinal Hormones Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1 and Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Peptide (GIP)) [ Time Frame: Test day 1 and 2 within 7 days. ]The Incretin effect (the % of insulin secreted due to the release of the intestinal hormones GLP-1 and GIP) is calculated as the difference between the insulin concentration during a 3 hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (day 1) compared to a 3 hour isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion (IIGI) (day 2) that has similar glucose excursions.
- The Total Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Peptide (GIP) Response Measured as Area Under the GIP Curve (AUC GIP). [ Time Frame: Test day 1 and 2 within 7 days. ]Comparison of the total release of GIP during the 3 hour OGTT and IIGI.
Biospecimen Retention: Samples Without DNA
|Study Start Date:||August 2012|
|Study Completion Date:||June 2013|
|Primary Completion Date:||February 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Healthy, Endurance trained (Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), ml*min-1*kg-1>60), 20-30 year, BMI: 18,5-25kg/m2, males.
Healthy, sedentary (Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), ml*min-1*kg-1<50), 20-30 year, BMI: 18,5-25kg/m2, males.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01698502
|University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health Sciences|
|Copenhagen, North, Denmark, 2200|
|Study Chair:||Flemming Dela, Prof. MD||University of Copenhagen, Dep. of Biomedical Sciences, Center of healthy Ageing, XLAB|